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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 160648 matches for " Mark B. Hampton "
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Maternal Undernutrition Significantly Impacts Ovarian Follicle Number and Increases Ovarian Oxidative Stress in Adult Rat Offspring
Angelica B. Bernal,Mark H. Vickers,Mark B. Hampton,Rebecca A. Poynton,Deborah M. Sloboda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015558
Abstract: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN) advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress.
Analysis of Electrodeposited Nickel-Iron Alloy Film Composition Using Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission
Alyssa A. Frey,Nicholas R. Wozniak,Timothy B. Nagi,Matthew P. Keller,J. Mark Lunderberg,Graham F. Peaslee,Paul A. DeYoung,Jennifer R. Hampton
International Journal of Electrochemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/604395
Abstract: The elemental composition of electrodeposited NiFe thin films was analyzed with particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The thin films were electrodeposited on polycrystalline Au substrates from a 100?mM NiSO4, 10 mM FeSO4, 0.5?M H3BO3, and 1?M Na2SO4 solution. PIXE spectra of these films were analyzed to obtain relative amounts of Ni and Fe as a function of deposition potential and deposition time. The results show that PIXE can measure the total deposited metal in a sample over at least four orders of magnitude with similar fractional uncertainties. The technique is also sensitive enough to observe the variations in alloy composition due to sample nonuniformity or variations in deposition parameters. 1. Introduction Electrodeposition is an attractive method for the fabrication of thin metal films and layered structures. Structures with a wide range of compositions, morphologies, and functionalities can be deposited by varying the large number of experimental parameters available in electrochemical methods. In addition, electrochemistry offers a low-cost alternative to more involved deposition techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy or vapor deposition while producing samples with comparable purity levels [1]. When two or more metals are electrodeposited simultaneously, the elemental composition of the resulting film does not necessarily reflect the composition of the deposition solution. In particular, for binary alloys of two iron group metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel) and alloys of iron group metals with zinc or cadmium, the less noble metal deposits preferentially for a wide range of deposition conditions [2, 3]. This effect, known as “anomalous codeposition,” results in a larger concentration of the less noble metal in the film than in the solution. The extent of the anomalous behavior for a particular alloy system has been shown to depend on a variety of experimental parameters including metal concentrations in solution, pH, presence of additives, deposition potential, deposition current density, and agitation of the solution during deposition [2–25]. The alloy composition of electrodeposited films has been measured by a number of different methods. A common technique is atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy [4, 5, 7–15, 26]. In this procedure, the deposit is chemically etched from the substrate, and the ion concentrations in the resulting solution are analyzed. Because this method is destructive, the resulting sample cannot be subjected to additional analysis. A further disadvantage of AA spectroscopy is that it gives the average composition
Targeted Biomarker Profiling of Matched Primary and Metastatic Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancers
Erica B. Schleifman, Rupal Desai, Jill M. Spoerke, Yuanyuan Xiao, Cheryl Wong, Ilma Abbas, Carol O’Brien, Rajesh Patel, Teiko Sumiyoshi, Ling Fu, Rachel N. Tam, Hartmut Koeppen, Timothy R. Wilson, Rajiv Raja, Garret M. Hampton, Mark R. Lackner
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088401
Abstract: Patients with newly diagnosed, early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer often show disease free survival in excess of five years following surgery and systemic adjuvant therapy. An important question is whether diagnostic tumor tissue from the primary lesion offers an accurate molecular portrait of the cancer post recurrence and thus may be used for predictive diagnostic purposes for patients with relapsed, metastatic disease. As the class I phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently activated in ER+ breast cancer and has been linked to acquired resistance to hormonal therapy, we hypothesized pathway status could evolve over time and treatment. Biomarker analyses were conducted on matched, asynchronous primary and metastatic tumors from 77 patients with ER+ breast cancer. We examined whether PIK3CA and AKT1 alterations or PTEN and Ki67 levels showed differences between primary and metastatic samples. We also sought to look more broadly at gene expression markers reflective of proliferation, molecular subtype, and key receptors and signaling pathways using an mRNA analysis platform developed on the Fluidigm BioMark? microfluidics system to measure the relative expression of 90 breast cancer related genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Application of this panel of biomarker assays to matched tumor pairs showed a high concordance between primary and metastatic tissue, with generally few changes in mutation status, proliferative markers, or gene expression between matched samples. The collection of assays described here has been optimized for FFPE tissue and may have utility in exploratory analyses to identify patient subsets responsive to targeted therapies.
The Tao of Open Science for Ecology
Stephanie E Hampton,Sean Anderson,Sarah C Bagby,Corinna Gries,Xueying Han,Edmund Hart,Matthew B. Jones,W. Christopher Lenhardt,Andrew MacDonald,William Michener,Joseph F Mudge,Afshin Pourmokhtarian,Mark Schildhauer,Kara H Woo,Naupaka Zimmerman
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.549v1
Abstract: The field of ecology is poised to take advantage of emerging technologies that facilitate the gathering, analyzing, and sharing of data, methods, and results. The concept of transparency at all stages of the research process, coupled with free and open access to data, code, and papers, constitutes "open science." Despite the many benefits of an open approach to science, a number of barriers to entry exist that may prevent researchers from embracing openness in their own work. Here we describe several key shifts in mindset that underpin the transition to more open science. These shifts in mindset include thinking about data stewardship rather than data ownership, embracing transparency throughout the data life-cycle and project duration, and accepting critique in public. Though foreign and perhaps frightening at first, these changes in thinking stand to benefit the field of ecology by fostering collegiality and broadening access to data and findings. We present an overview of tools and best practices that can enable these shifts in mindset at each stage of the research process, including tools to support data management planning and reproducible analyses, strategies for soliciting constructive feedback throughout the research process, and methods of broadening access to final research products.
Sprouting Wings in the Hyper-Colonial: High-Octane Desire and Youth-Targeted Market Predation  [PDF]
Mark B. Borg
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.14040
Abstract: In this article, the author utilizes a novel action research approach to developing an interpretation of a colonial discourse that reproduces an otherness that is consistent with traditional views of history and ideology. Through this unique educational—for both author and client—approach, further analysis reveals a colonial discourse that has become unhinged from its historical roots and taken flight into supermolecular space where its origins and impact have been thoroughly dissociated from its cultural impact. When our identities are thoroughly absorbed into and taken over by consumer products, we enter a corporately induced, mass-media augmented hyper-colonial in which our minds, bodies, and senses of self become defined by those products. A primary research question is: how can we intervene in colonialism when the colonized is an inferior/lacking version of our own self ? The ways in which this hyper-colonial state captures and makes use of desire and is then marked—marketed—by/through a society-level drive is explored throughout this article. The author “takes a walk”—that is, he uses a week-long organizational consultation that was conducted for a marketing research organization to analyze the ways that the dynamics of a hyper-colonialized consumer culture were at play in the consultee’s marketing strategies that target American youth.
Disability, Social Policy and the Burden of Disease: Creating an “Assertive” Community Mental Health System in New York  [PDF]
Mark B. Borg, Jr.
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.12018
Abstract: One conclusion of the decade-long epidemiological Global Burden of Disease Project is that five of the top 10 disease “burdens” the world will face by 2020 will be related to mental disabilities. Therefore, developing social policy and community responses to the ways that people with mental disabilities are treated is becoming an important focus for community practitioners, political activists and legislators. The author explores some of the dynamics of our culture’s approach to dealing with difference, especially when manifested in disenfranchized individuals. He discusses a community development project created by a New York City advocacy and social policy organization following the 1999 murder of a woman by an individual whose mental health disability was never treated. Parallels are drawn between the civil rights and community mental health movements, which created a precedent for the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act. Also examined are the ways in which community mental health systems manifest social policy that alternately resists, repeats and colludes with power operations. The unexamined assumptions that drive this dynamic are examined as ableism or disability oppression.
Suicide by Cop-A Psychology of Institutional Betrayal  [PDF]
Mark B. Malmin
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.86059
Abstract: This positional paper examines institutional law enforcement (LE) deadly force encounters with the mentally ill in the United States, with an emphasis on those who threaten or attempt suicide by cop while armed with a weapon other than a firearm. Research reveals a disproportionate number of mentally ill people are killed by police during LE confrontations. The social psychology of suicide by cop and the contributory LE institutional facilitation of these encounters is examined. Causational attribution is attributable, in part, to LE epistemological correlation factors that include a one-size-fits all shooting methodology of shooting center mass body-torso that invariably produces death, a lack of LE crisis intervention de-escalation training, and other contributing sociological geopolitical-jurisprudential factors that are elucidated. LE use-of-force is exegetically examined in the legal context of requirements that it be objectively reasonable and necessary. A reduction in homicides of the mentally ill at the hands of LE is conceptually possible if the institutional culture of LE agrees to increase crisis intervention de-escalation training for officers, and LE modifies its shooting tactics, so as to permit discretionary implementation of incapacitating force, permitting a more calculated disabling level of force, using a fewer rounds fired methodology. Such a change in policy and tactics could mitigate the number of mentally ill fatalities with LE encounters, potentially improve community policing relationships, and reduce wrongful death litigations and settlement awards that are routinely paid out by municipalities with tax dollars. The author recommends the implementation of a pilot program that would test the efficacy of these change proposals.
How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps
David M. Forsyth, Luke Woodford, Paul D. Moloney, Jordan O. Hampton, Andrew P. Woolnough, Mark Tucker
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097937
Abstract: There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ~14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.
Social Learning, Critical Reflection and the Perception of Facticity in Deliberation on Water Reuse
Greg Hampton
Review of European Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/res.v4n5p181
Abstract: Critical reflection involves the uncovering and understanding of the assumptions, which are made in the development of knowledge and the establishment and perception of facts. A capacity to understand the development of facts is proposed as an important outcome of social learning. The public perception of the facticity of expert scientific and technological knowledge is analysed in four sets of workshops conducted with publics who utilised recycled water, were within close proximity to water recycling schemes or lived in an area where planned water recycling schemes were to be implemented. The purpose of these workshops was to develop a social learning method, which could be utilised within public engagement about water reuse management. Jonathan Potter's concepts of offensive and defensive rhetoric and reifying and ironising discourse were used to describe how a public perceived expert knowledge as factual or resisted the facticity of expert pronouncements about water reuse, which were utilised in the workshops. Examples of this type of rhetoric and discourse were identified in the deliberative workshops developed in this study of social learning about water reuse and its implementation in public engagement.
Dance Theatre: An Anti -Discursive Illustration of an Embodied Existence
Claire Hampton
Skepsi , 2012,
Abstract: This article investigates the value of dance theatre as a legitimate mode of empirical and somatic academic enquiry. It offers an in-depth analysis of Israeli choreographer Jasmin Vardimon’s recent work 7734; examining this piece in relation to the discursive theories of the post-structural philosopher Michel Foucault and the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu as well as applying the theory of ‘corporeality’ as posited by Susan Leigh Foster, Professor of Dance. Moreover, it considers Vardimon’s own identity as belonging to the third generation from the Holocaust through the lens of ‘post memory’ and analyses the impact of the choreographer’s inherited memories upon her art. Finally, the article addresses dance theatre, specifically the work of practice led researcher, Jasmin Vardimon, as a means of transcending dualistic tendencies inherent in discursive academic research; and demonstrating how dance theatre invokes the perception, reception and reflection of the unified subjective; the body and mind of those choreographing, dancing and, last but by no means least, watching.
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