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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 350571 matches for " Marjolein W. J. Kuiper "
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Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children Can Normalize after Changes in Dietary Intake  [PDF]
Marjolein W. J. Kuiper, Ellen J. van der Gaag
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.33059
Abstract: Background: There is no effective treatment for children with subclinical hypothyroidism. The natural course of subclinical hypothyroidism shows a normalization rate of 41% for Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Objective; The thyroid needs (among others) iron, iodine, and vitamin A for a proper thyroid hormone synthesis. We hypothesize that with a dietary change, more children can normalize their TSH. Design: In this case-control study, 54 children aged 1 - 14 years with subclinical hypothyroidism were divided into a diet group and a control group. The diet consisted of green vegetables, beef, full fat milk, and butter. The diet was followed for at least 3 months. A total of 27 patients comprised the diet group and 27 the control group. TSH, Free T4 (FT4), and Body Mass Index (BMI) were evaluated during the follow up. Results: By following this diet, TSH levels decreased significantly compared to when following the natural course. FT4 levels did not change during the follow up. The diet group realized a change of normalizing their TSH with a RR 2.8 (95% CI 1.45 - 5.61). There were no changes in BMI after following the diet. Conclusions: Even though our study population was small, we observed the association of a dietary change and normalization of TSH in children with subclinical hypothyroidism, without adverse effects.
Hard X-ray timing and spectral properties of PSR B0540-69
J. de Plaa,L. Kuiper,W. Hermsen
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030039
Abstract: We report the hard X-ray properties of the young Crab-like LMC pulsar PSR B0540-69, using archival RXTE PCA (2 - 60 keV) and RXTE HEXTE (15 - 250 keV) data. Making use of the very long effective exposure of 684 ks, we derived a very detailed master pulse profile for energies 2 - 20 keV. We confirm the broad single-pulse shape with a dip in the middle and with a significant fine structure to the left of the dip. For the first time pulse profiles in the 10 - 50 keV energy interval are shown. Remarkably, the coarse pulse shape is stable from the optical up to X-ray energies analogous to the case of the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21). The profiles can be described with two Gaussians with a phase separation of ~0.2; the distribution of the ratios between the two components from the optical to the X-ray range is consistent with being flat. Therefore we cannot conclude that the profile consists of two distinct components. We also derived a new total pulsed spectrum in the ~0.01 - 50 keV range in a consistent analysis including also archival ROSAT PSPC (0.01 - 2.5 keV) data. This spectrum cannot be described by a single power-law, but requires an additional energy dependent term. The bending of the spectrum around 10 keV resembles that of the Crab pulsar spectrum. Although model calculations using Outer Gap scenarios could probably explain the high-energy characteristics of PSR B0540-69 as they successfully do for the Crab, our measurements do not entirely agree with the latest calculations by Zhang & Cheng (2000). The small discrepancies are likely to be caused by uncertainties in the pulsar's geometry.
Protostellar Outflows and Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars
Rolf Kuiper,Harold W. Yorke,Neal J. Turner
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/86
Abstract: We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the "flashlight effect", or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.
Temporal and spectral evolution in X- and gamma-rays of magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 since its October 2008 outburst: the discovery of a transient hard pulsed component after its January 2009 outburst
L. Kuiper,W. Hermsen,P. R. den Hartog,J. O. Urama
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/748/2/133
Abstract: The magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 exhibited outbursts in October 2008 and January 2009. In this paper we present in great detail the evolution of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the persistent total and pulsed emission of 1E 1547.0-5408 between ~1 and 300 keV starting in October 3, 2008, and ending in January 2011. We analyzed data collected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and the Swift satellite.
Likely detection of pulsed high-energy gamma-rays from millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232
L. Kuiper,W. Hermsen,F. Verbunt,A. Lyne,I. Stairs,D. J. Thompson,G. Cusumano
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We report on the likely detection of pulsed high-energy gamma-rays from the binary millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232 in 100-1000 MeV data from CGRO EGRET. Imaging analysis demonstrates that the highly significant gamma-ray source 2EG J0220+4228 (~10 sigma) is for energies > 100 MeV positionally consistent with both PSR J0218+4232 and the BL Lac 3C66A. However, above 1 GeV 3C66A is the evident counterpart, whereas between 100 and 300 MeV PSR J0218+4232 is the most likely one. Timing analysis using one ephemeris valid for all EGRET observations yields in the 100-1000 MeV range a double-pulse profile at a ~3.5 sigma significance level. The phase separation is similar to the component separation of ~0.47 observed at X-rays. A comparison of the gamma-ray profile with the 610 MHz radio profile in absolute phase shows that the two gamma- ray pulses coincide with two of the three emission features in the complex radio profile.
Ion association in low-polarity solvents: comparisons between theory, simulation, and experiment
Chantal Valeriani,Philip J. Camp,Jos W. Zwanikken,René van Roij,Marjolein Dijkstra
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1039/C001577F
Abstract: The association of ions in electrolyte solutions at very low concentration and low temperature is studied using computer simulations and quasi-chemical ion-pairing theory. The specific case of the restricted primitive model (charged hard spheres) is considered. Specialised simulation techniques are employed that lead to efficient sampling of the arrangements and distributions of clusters and free ions, even at conditions corresponding to nanomolar solutions of simple salts in solvents with dielectric constants in the range 5-10, as used in recent experimental work on charged-colloid sus- pensions. A direct comparison is effected between theory and simulation using a variety of clustering criteria and theoretical approximations. It is shown that conventional distance-based cluster criteria can give erroneous results. A reliable set of theoretical and simulation estimators for the degree of association is proposed. The ion-pairing theory is then compared to experimental results for salt solutions in low-polarity solvents. The agreement is excellent, and on this basis some calculations are made for the screening lengths which will figure in the treatment of colloid-colloid interactions in such solutions. The accord with available experimental results is complete.
Computer simulations of the restricted primitive model at very low temperature and density
Chantal Valeriani,Philip J. Camp,Jos W. Zwanikken,René van Roij,Marjolein Dijkstra
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/22/10/104122
Abstract: The problem of successfully simulating ionic fluids at low temperature and low density states is well known in the simulation literature: using conventional methods, the system is not able to equilibrate rapidly due to the presence of strongly associated cation-anion pairs. In this manuscript we present a numerical method for speeding up computer simulations of the restricted primitive model (RPM) at low temperatures (around the critical temperature) and at very low densities (down to $10^{-10}\sigma^{-3}$, where $\sigma$ is the ion diameter). Experimentally, this regime corresponds to typical concentrations of electrolytes in nonaqueous solvents. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that the RPM has been equilibrated at such extremely low concentrations. More generally, this method could be used to equilibrate other systems that form aggregates at low concentrations.
Hard X-ray timing and spectral characteristics of the energetic pulsar PSR J0205+6449 in supernova remnant 3C58
L. Kuiper,W. Hermsen,J. O. Urama,P. R. den Hartog,A. G. Lyne,B. W. Stappers
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913851
Abstract: PSR J0205+6449 is a young rotation-powered pulsar in SNR 3C 58. It is one of only three young (<10,000 year old) pulsars which are so far detected in the radio and the classical X-ray bands, as well as at hard X-rays above 20 keV and at high-energy (>100 MeV) $\gamma$-rays. The other two young pulsars are the Crab and PSR B1509-58. Our aim is to derive the timing and spectral characteristics of PSR J0205+6449 over the broad X-ray band from ~0.5 to ~270 keV. We used all publicly available RXTE observations of PSR J0205+6449 to first generate accurate ephemerides over the period September 30, 2000 - March 18, 2006. Next, phase-folding procedures yielded pulse profiles using data from RXTE PCA and HEXTE, and XMM-Newton EPIC PN. While our timing solutions are consistent with earlier results, our work shows sharper structures in the PCA X-ray profile. The X-ray pulse profile consists of two sharp pulses, separated in phase by 0.488(2), which can be described with 2 asymmetric Lorentzians, each with the rising wing steeper than the trailing wing, and full-width-half-maximum 1.41(5) ms and 2.35(22) ms, respectively. We find an indication for a flux increase by a factor ~2, about 3.5 sigma above the time-averaged value, for the second, weaker pulse during a two-week interval, while its pulse shape did not change. The spectrum of the pulsed X-ray emission is of non-thermal origin, exhibiting a power-law shape with photon index Gamma = 1.03(2) over the energy band ~0.5 to ~270 keV. In the energy band covered with the PCA (~3-30 keV) the spectra of the two pulses have the same photon index, namely, 1.04(3) and 1.10(8), respectively.
Spectral and timing properties of the accreting X-ray millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057
M. Falanga,L. Kuiper,J. Poutanen,D. K. Galloway,E. W. Bonning,E. Bozzo,A. Goldwurm,W. Hermsen,L. Stella
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201016240
Abstract: IGR J17511-3057 is the second X-ray transient accreting millisecond pulsar discovered by INTEGRAL. It was in outburst for about a month from September 13, 2009. The broad-band average spectrum is well described by thermal Comptonization with an electron temperature of kT_e ~ 25 keV, soft seed photons of kT_bb ~ 0.6 keV, and Thomson optical depth \tau_T ~ 2 in a slab geometry. During the outburst the spectrum stays remarkably stable with plasma and soft seed photon temperatures and scattering optical depth being constant within errors. We fitted the outburst profile with the exponential model, and using the disk instability model we inferred the outer disk radius to be (4.8 - 5.4) \times 1010 cm. The INTEGRAL and RXTE data reveal the X-ray pulsation at a period of 4.08 milliseconds up to ~ 120 keV. The pulsed fraction is shown to decrease from ~22% at 3 keV to a constant pulsed fraction of ~17-18% between 7-30 keV, and then to decrease again down to ~13% at 60 keV. The nearly sinusoidal pulses show soft lags monotonically increasing with energy to about 0.2 ms at 10-20 keV similar to those observed in other accreting pulsars. The short burst profiles indicate hydrogen-poor material at ignition, which suggests either that the accreted material is hydrogen-deficient, or that the CNO metallicity is up to a factor of 2 times solar. However, the variation of burst recurrence time as a function of m (inferred from the X-ray flux) is much smaller than predicted by helium-ignition models.
High-energy characteristics of the schizophrenic pulsar PSR J1846-0258 in Kes 75
L. Kuiper,W. Hermsen
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: PSR J1846-0258 is a radio-quiet rotation-powered pulsar at the center of Supernova remnant Kes 75. It is the youngest pulsar (~723 year) of all known pulsars and slows down very predictably since its discovery in 2000. Till June 7, 2006 very stable behavior has been displayed both in the temporal and spectral domains with pulsed emission detectable by INTEGRAL IBIS ISGRI and RXTE HEXTE up to ~150 keV. Then, a dramatic brightening was detected of the pulsar during June 7-12, 2006 Chandra observations of Kes 75. This radiative event, lasting for ~55 days, was accompanied by a huge timing glitch, reported on for the first in present work. Moreover, several short magnetar-like bursts were discovered. In this work not only the time-averaged pre-outburst X-ray/soft gamma-ray characteristics are discussed in detail, but also the spectral evolution during the outburst and its relaxation phase are addressed using RXTE PCA and HEXTE and INTEGRAL IBIS ISGRI data.
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