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De l’intérêt des ateliers interculturels On the interest of intercultural workshop
Jocelyne Sourisseau
Recherche et Pratiques Pédagogiques en Langues de Spécialité : Cahiers de l'APLIUT , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/apliut.1150
Abstract: Créer de véritables lieux de communication entre étudiants de nationalités différentes nécessite une réflexion approfondie pour que les échanges ne restent pas superficiels. Il est nécessaire de construire des activités qui répondent à plusieurs objectifs : découvrir le contexte culturel de l’autre, les valeurs et comportements qui en découlent, améliorer sa capacité à parler et à écrire une langue étrangère, arriver à établir des contacts avec des personnes de culture éloignée de la sienne et créer de nouveaux liens amicaux basés sur une réelle volonté de communiquer. Cela implique d’élaborer de nouvelles manières de travailler et d’imaginer de nouveaux lieux plus propices que le cadre de la classe pour poursuivre les échanges. La mise en place de lieux d’échanges encadrés, dans les établissements supérieurs est indispensable car les rencontres interculturelles ne vont pas nécessairement de soi entre étudiants fran ais et étudiants étrangers. Ces ateliers préparent efficacement les jeunes à évoluer dans un environnement privé et professionnel de plus en plus international. Creating real platforms of communication between students of different nationalities requires careful consideration to avoid superficial exchanges. It is necessary to build activities that meet several objectives : to enable the discovery of the cultural context of all those involved, together with the values and behaviours that come from this cultural reality, to improve one’s ability to speak and write a foreign language, to succeed in establishing contacts with people from a different culture and to create friendly links based on a real desire to communicate. This implies developing new ways of working and thinking about new places which are more appropriate than the classroom framework for pursuing exchanges. Establishing opportunities for cross-cultural interaction in universities is essential because cross-cultural meetings between French and foreign students cannot be taken for granted. These workshops prepare young people to evolve efficiently in a private and professional environment that is becoming more and more international.
Tetherin Restricts Productive HIV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission
Nicoletta Casartelli equal contributor,Marion Sourisseau equal contributor,Jerome Feldmann,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Adeline Mallet,Anne-Geneviève Marcelin,John Guatelli,Olivier Schwartz
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000955
Abstract: The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. Tetherin-positive or -negative cells, infected with wild-type or ΔVpu HIV, were used as donor cells and cocultivated with target lymphocytes. We show that tetherin inhibits productive cell-to-cell transmission of ΔVpu to targets and impairs that of WT HIV. Tetherin accumulates with Gag at the contact zone between infected and target cells, but does not prevent the formation of virological synapses. In the presence of tetherin, viruses are then mostly transferred to targets as abnormally large patches. These viral aggregates do not efficiently promote infection after transfer, because they accumulate at the surface of target cells and are impaired in their fusion capacities. Tetherin, by imprinting virions in donor cells, is the first example of a surface restriction factor limiting viral cell-to-cell spread.
Temporal Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Cell Entry with Occludin Directed Blocking Antibodies
Marion Sourisseau,Maria L. Michta,Chati Zony,Benjamin Israelow,Sharon E. Hopcraft,Christopher M. Narbus,Ana Parra Martín,Matthew J. Evans
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003244
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. A better understanding of its life cycle, including the process of host cell entry, is important for the development of HCV therapies and model systems. Based on the requirement for numerous host factors, including the two tight junction proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN), HCV cell entry has been proposed to be a multi-step process. The lack of OCLN-specific inhibitors has prevented a comprehensive analysis of this process. To study the role of OCLN in HCV cell entry, we created OCLN mutants whose HCV cell entry activities could be inhibited by antibodies. These mutants were expressed in polarized HepG2 cells engineered to support the complete HCV life cycle by CD81 and miR-122 expression and synchronized infection assays were performed to define the kinetics of HCV cell entry. During these studies, OCLN utilization differences between HCV isolates were observed, supporting a model that HCV directly interacts with OCLN. In HepG2 cells, both HCV cell entry and tight junction formation were impaired by OCLN silencing and restored by expression of antibody regulatable OCLN mutant. Synchronized infection assays showed that glycosaminoglycans and SR-BI mediated host cell binding, while CD81, CLDN1 and OCLN all acted sequentially at a post-binding stage prior to endosomal acidification. These results fit a model where the tight junction region is the last to be encountered by the virion prior to internalization.
Innate Sensing of HIV-Infected Cells
Alice Lepelley ?,Stéphanie Louis ?,Marion Sourisseau,Helen K. W. Law,Julien Pothlichet,Clémentine Schilte,Laurence Chaperot,Jo?l Plumas,Richard E. Randall,Mustapha Si-Tahar,Fabrizio Mammano,Matthew L. Albert,Olivier Schwartz ?
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001284
Abstract: Cell-free HIV-1 virions are poor stimulators of type I interferon (IFN) production. We examined here how HIV-infected cells are recognized by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and by other cells. We show that infected lymphocytes are more potent inducers of IFN than virions. There are target cell-type differences in the recognition of infected lymphocytes. In primary pDCs and pDC-like cells, recognition occurs in large part through TLR7, as demonstrated by the use of inhibitors and by TLR7 silencing. Donor cells expressing replication-defective viruses, carrying mutated reverse transcriptase, integrase or nucleocapsid proteins induced IFN production by target cells as potently as wild-type virus. In contrast, Env-deleted or fusion defective HIV-1 mutants were less efficient, suggesting that in addition to TLR7, cytoplasmic cellular sensors may also mediate sensing of infected cells. Furthermore, in a model of TLR7-negative cells, we demonstrate that the IRF3 pathway, through a process requiring access of incoming viral material to the cytoplasm, allows sensing of HIV-infected lymphocytes. Therefore, detection of HIV-infected lymphocytes occurs through both endosomal and cytoplasmic pathways. Characterization of the mechanisms of innate recognition of HIV-infected cells allows a better understanding of the pathogenic and exacerbated immunologic events associated with HIV infection.
Real-Time Whole-Body Visualization of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Host Interferon Response in Zebrafish
Nuno Palha,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Valérie Briolat,Georges Lutfalla,Marion Sourisseau,Felix Ellett,Chieh-Huei Wang,Graham J. Lieschke,Philippe Herbomel,Olivier Schwartz,Jean-Pierre Levraud
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003619
Abstract: Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging arbovirus that may cause severe disease, constitutes an important public health problem. Herein we describe a novel CHIKV infection model in zebrafish, where viral spread was live-imaged in the whole body up to cellular resolution. Infected cells emerged in various organs in one principal wave with a median appearance time of ~14 hours post infection. Timing of infected cell death was organ dependent, leading to a shift of CHIKV localization towards the brain. As in mammals, CHIKV infection triggered a strong type-I interferon (IFN) response, critical for survival. IFN was mainly expressed by neutrophils and hepatocytes. Cell type specific ablation experiments further demonstrated that neutrophils play a crucial, unexpected role in CHIKV containment. Altogether, our results show that the zebrafish represents a novel valuable model to dynamically visualize replication, pathogenesis and host responses to a human virus.
Identité et marché dans une situation de pluralisme institutionnel : le cas du secteur agricole à Mayotte
Jean-Michel Sourisseau,Perrine Burnod
Développement Durable et Territoires , 2009,
Abstract: L’ le de Mayotte, où dominent encore des règles musulmanes et coutumières privilégiant les dynamiques collectives aux initiatives individuelles, est engagée dans une série de réformes institutionnelles devant la conduire au statut de département fran ais. L’ancrage dans l’ensemble fran ais entretient un fort développement économique mais remet aussi en cause les institutions anciennes de régulation, fondées sur la réciprocité et la solidarité familiale et villageoise. En s’appuyant sur l’exemple du secteur agricole, l’article examine conjointement les mécanismes de pénétration marchande et les contre mouvements de nature non marchande que les acteurs locaux mettent en uvre pour gérer cette situation de pluralisme institutionnel. The island of Mayotte, where still dominate Moslem and customary rules privileging the collective dynamics to the individual initiatives, is engaged in huge institutional reforms that must lead it to the status of French department. The anchoring in the French republic maintains a rapid and consequent economic development but also questions former institutions, based on reciprocity and on local solidarity. The article focuses on agriculture and examines both the mechanisms of trade penetration and their opposite movements toward reciprocity that local actors implement to manage this situation of institutional pluralism.
Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection
Simona Ozden, Michel Huerre, Jean-Pierre Riviere, Lark L. Coffey, Philippe V. Afonso, Vincent Mouly, Jean de Monredon, Jean-Christophe Roger, Mohamed El Amrani, Jean-Luc Yvin, Marie-Christine Jaffar, Marie-Pascale Frenkiel, Marion Sourisseau, Olivier Schwartz, Gillian Butler-Browne, Philippe Desprès, Antoine Gessain, Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000527
Abstract: Background Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells), and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. Conclusions/Significance This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans.
Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus
Marion Sourisseau,Clémentine Schilte,Nicoletta Casartelli,Céline Trouillet,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Dominika Rudnicka,Nathalie Sol-Foulon,Karin Le Roux,Marie-Christine Prevost,Hafida Fsihi,Marie-Pascale Frenkiel,Fabien Blanchet,Philippe V Afonso,Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi,Simona Ozden,Antoine Gessain,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Bruno Verhasselt,Alessia Zamborlini,Ali Sa?b,Felix A Rey,Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos,Philippe Desprès,Alain Michault,Matthew L Albert,Olivier Schwartz
PLOS Pathogens , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030089
Abstract: An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host.
La participation des acteurs locaux à l’élaboration et l’évaluation des politiques publiques de développement durable en Nouvelle-Calédonie
Séverine Bouard,Jean-Michel Sourisseau,Gilles Pestana
EchoGéo , 2008,
Abstract: L’objet de cet article est d’explorer les conditions et l’opérationnalité d’une réflexion participative sur le développement durable et ses implications pour élaborer et évaluer des politiques publiques de développement. Après une présentation succincte des controverses dont fait l’objet le concept de développement durable à l’échelle mondiale, nous tenterons de préciser les enjeux de durabilité dans le contexte de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’entrée privilégie les articulations entre les trois dimensions de la durabilité, en s’appuyant sur les formes localement per ues de la performance économique, de l’intégrité de l’environnement et de l’équité sociale. Pour illustrer ces enjeux, nous nous intéressons plus précisément à la gestion sociale des impacts d’un important projet industriel d’extraction et de traitement du nickel dans la province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’article décrit ensuite les principes à respecter pour la mise en place d’un suivi évaluation concerté entre les différents acteurs, susceptible de faciliter la prise en charge de cette transversalité et la gestion sociale des impacts du projet. Nous partons pour cela des acquis d’un programme de recherche portant sur l’élaboration d’une méthode de suivi évaluation participatif des programmes de développement local en province Nord. Enfin, nous insisterons sur les contraintes à l’efficacité et à la pérennité de dispositifs réellement participatifs, mais aussi à l’application des principes du développement durable, notamment dans le contexte du Pacifique insulaire. The aim of this article is to investigate the conditions and the interests of a participatory reflexion on the sustainable development and its consequences to draw up and to assess development policies. After a brief display of the controversies carried out by the use and sense of the “sustainable development”, we explain what is at stake about durability in the context of New Caledonia. We choose to focus on linkages between three dimensions of the durability. We start from the local perceptions of the economic performance, the integrity of the environment and the social equity. As an illustration of what is at stake in sustainable development policies, we present the social management of the impacts of an important industrial project of extraction and treatment of the nickel in the North province of New Caledonia. Considering that participatory follow-up evaluation facilitate transversality and the social management of the impacts of the project, the article describes the principles to respect for the implementation of a particip
Psychology’s Borrowings from Medical Methodology: Analog Comparisons  [PDF]
Pascal Henri Keller, Marion Haza
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46A1005

Medical advances force practitioners to work in an increasingly standardized manner with their patients. Quantitative health psychology attempts to follow a similar path by adopting, for the same patients, methods that are equally systematized. In this article, the origin of such an attempt will first be positioned historically. The clinical method will then be used to establish that, while patients tend to accept the constraints imposed by the medical technique, they usually resist those resulting from quantitative psychology. Based on clinical observations, we will present several ways in which such resistance may manifest itself. This article aims to further the understanding of qualitative health in psychology.

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