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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 537007 matches for " Mario M. D'Elios "
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Cytotoxic T Cells in H. pylori-Related Gastric Autoimmunity and Gastric Lymphoma
Mathijs P. Bergman,Mario M. D'Elios
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/104918
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastroduodenal pathologies, but only a minority of infected patients develop gastric B-cell lymphoma, gastric autoimmunity, or other life threatening diseases, as gastric cancer or peptic ulcer. The type of host immune response against H. pylori, particularly the cytolytic effector functions of T cells, is crucial for the outcome of the infection. T cells are potentially able to kill a target via different mechanisms, such as perforins or Fas-Fas ligand interaction. In H. pylori-infected patients with gastric autoimmunity cytolytic T cells, that cross-recognize different epitopes of H. pylori proteins and H
T Cells and Adoptive Immunotherapy: Recent Developments and Future Prospects in Gastrointestinal Oncology
Amedeo Amedei,Elena Niccolai,Mario M. D'Elios
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/320571
Abstract: Gastrointestinal oncology is one of the foremost causes of death: the gastric cancer accounts for 10.4% of cancer deaths worldwide, the pancreatic cancer for 6%, and finally, the colorectal cancer for 9% of all cancer-related deaths. For all these gastrointestinal cancers, surgical tumor resection remains the primary curative treatment, but the overall 5-year survival rate remains poor, ranging between 20–25%; the addition of combined modality strategies (pre- or postoperative chemoradiotherapy or perioperative chemotherapy) results in 5-year survival rates of only 30–35%. Therefore, many investigators believe that the potential for making significant progress lies on understanding and exploiting the molecular biology of gastrointestinal tumors to investigate new therapeutic strategies such as specific immunotherapy. In this paper we will focus on recent knowledge concerning the role of T cells and the use of T adoptive immunotherapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.
T Cells and Adoptive Immunotherapy: Recent Developments and Future Prospects in Gastrointestinal Oncology
Amedeo Amedei,Elena Niccolai,Mario M. D'Elios
Journal of Immunology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/320571
Abstract: Gastrointestinal oncology is one of the foremost causes of death: the gastric cancer accounts for 10.4% of cancer deaths worldwide, the pancreatic cancer for 6%, and finally, the colorectal cancer for 9% of all cancer-related deaths. For all these gastrointestinal cancers, surgical tumor resection remains the primary curative treatment, but the overall 5-year survival rate remains poor, ranging between 20–25%; the addition of combined modality strategies (pre- or postoperative chemoradiotherapy or perioperative chemotherapy) results in 5-year survival rates of only 30–35%. Therefore, many investigators believe that the potential for making significant progress lies on understanding and exploiting the molecular biology of gastrointestinal tumors to investigate new therapeutic strategies such as specific immunotherapy. In this paper we will focus on recent knowledge concerning the role of T cells and the use of T adoptive immunotherapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. 1. Introduction Gastrointestinal oncology is one of the foremost causes of death; regarding the gastric cancer (GC) the American Cancer Society estimated one million new cases, nearly 70% of them in developing countries, and about 800,000 deaths [1]; instead the pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths among men and women, being responsible for 6% of all cancer-related deaths [2], and finally, the colorectal cancer (CRC) accounted for 9% of all cancer deaths (49, 920) in 2009 [3]. For all these gastrointestinal cancers, surgical tumor resection remains the primary curative treatment but the overall 5-year survival rate remains poor, ranging between 20–25% [4–6]. The addition of combined modality strategies (pre- or postoperative chemoradiotherapy or perioperative chemotherapy) results in 5-year survival rates of only 30–35% [7–9]. Therefore, many investigators believe that the potential for making significant progress lie on understanding and exploiting the molecular biology of gastrointestinal tumors to investigate new therapeutic strategies such as gene therapy [10] and especially specific immunotherapy [11–13]. Evidence from different analysis suggests a key role of the immune system in counterattack of cancer progression: tumors are 100 times more likely to occur in people who take immunosuppressive medications than in people with normal immune function [14], and, in opposition, heightened anti-tumor activity of the immune system has been suggested in many reports of spontaneous cancer regression [15]. Also, a positive correlation between
T Cells in Gastric Cancer: Friends or Foes
Amedeo Amedei,Chiara Della Bella,Elena Silvestri,Domenico Prisco,Mario M. D'Elios
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/690571
Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for gastric cancer. As for any type of cancer, T cells are crucial for recognition and elimination of gastric tumor cells. Unfortunately T cells, instead of protecting from the onset of cancer, can contribute to oncogenesis. Herein we review the different types, “friend or foe”, of T-cell response in gastric cancer.
Novel Immunotherapeutic Strategies of Gastric Cancer Treatment
Amedeo Amedei,Marisa Benagiano,Chiara della Bella,Elena Niccolai,Mario M. D'Elios
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/437348
Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths, accounting for 10.4% of cancer deaths worldwide. Despite the improvements, estimated cure rates for patients with advanced stages remain poor, and in the metastatic setting, chemotherapy is the mainstay of palliative therapy and results in objective response rates (ORRs) of only 20–40% and median overall survivals (OS) of 8–10 months. Therefore, many investigators believe that the potential for making significant progress lies in understanding and exploiting the molecular biology of these tumors to investigate new therapeutic strategies to combat GC, such as specific immunotherapy. In this paper, we analyze the different approaches used for immune-based (especially dendritic and T cells) therapies to gastric cancer treatment and discuss the results obtained in preclinical models as in clinical trials.
The Adenylate Cyclase Toxins of Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis Promote Th2 Cell Development by Shaping T Cell Antigen Receptor Signaling
Silvia Rossi Paccani,Marisa Benagiano,Nagaja Capitani,Irene Zornetta,Daniel Ladant,Cesare Montecucco,Mario M. D'Elios,Cosima T. Baldari
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000325
Abstract: The adjuvanticity of bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins has been ascribed to their capacity, largely mediated by cAMP, to modulate APC activation, resulting in the expression of Th2–driving cytokines. On the other hand, cAMP has been demonstrated to induce a Th2 bias when present during T cell priming, suggesting that bacterial cAMP elevating toxins may directly affect the Th1/Th2 balance. Here we have investigated the effects on human CD4+ T cell differentiation of two adenylate cyclase toxins, Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) and Bordetella pertussis CyaA, which differ in structure, mode of cell entry, and subcellular localization. We show that low concentrations of ET and CyaA, but not of their genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase defective counterparts, potently promote Th2 cell differentiation by inducing expression of the master Th2 transcription factors, c-maf and GATA-3. We also present evidence that the Th2–polarizing concentrations of ET and CyaA selectively inhibit TCR–dependent activation of Akt1, which is required for Th1 cell differentiation, while enhancing the activation of two TCR–signaling mediators, Vav1 and p38, implicated in Th2 cell differentiation. This is at variance from the immunosuppressive toxin concentrations, which interfere with the earliest step in TCR signaling, activation of the tyrosine kinase Lck, resulting in impaired CD3ζ phosphorylation and inhibition of TCR coupling to ZAP-70 and Erk activation. These results demonstrate that, notwithstanding their differences in their intracellular localization, which result in focalized cAMP production, both toxins directly affect the Th1/Th2 balance by interfering with the same steps in TCR signaling, and suggest that their adjuvanticity is likely to result from their combined effects on APC and CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, our results strongly support the key role of cAMP in the adjuvanticity of these toxins.
Potential Role of M. tuberculosis Specific IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT Assays in Discriminating Children with Active or Latent Tuberculosis
Elena Chiappini, Chiara Della Bella, Francesca Bonsignori, Sara Sollai, Amedeo Amedei, Luisa Galli, Elena Niccolai, Gianfranco Del Prete, Mahavir Singh, Mario M. D'Elios, Maurizio de Martino
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046041
Abstract: Background Although currently available IGRA have been reported to be promising markers for TB infection, they cannot distinguish active tuberculosis (TB) from latent infection (LTBI). Objective Children with LTBI, active TB disease or uninfected were prospectively evaluated by an in-house ELISPOT assay in order to investigate possible immunological markers for a differential diagnosis between LTBI and active TB. Methods Children at risk for TB infection prospectively enrolled in our infectious disease unit were evaluated by in-house IFN-γ and IL-2 based ELISPOT assays using a panel of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Results Twenty-nine children were classified as uninfected, 21 as LTBI and 25 as active TB cases (including 5 definite and 20 probable cases). Significantly higher IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were observed in infected vs. uninfected children for ESAT-6 (p<0.0001), CFP-10 (p<0.0001), TB 10.3 (p = 0.003), and AlaDH (p = 0.001), while differences were not significant considering Ag85B (p = 0.063), PstS1 (p = 0.512), and HspX (16 kDa) (p = 0.139). IL-2 ELISPOT assay responses were different for ESAT-6 (p<0.0001), CFP-10 (p<0.0001), TB 10.3 (p<0.0001), HspX (16 kDa) (p<0.0001), PstS1 (p<0.0001) and AlaDH (p = 0.001); but not for Ag85B (p = 0.063). Comparing results between children with LTBI and those with TB disease differences were significant for IFN-γ ELISPOT only for AlaDH antigen (p = 0.021) and for IL-2 ELISPOT assay for AlaDH (p<0.0001) and TB 10.3 antigen (p = 0.043). ROC analyses demonstrated sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 81% of AlaDH-IL-2 ELISPOT assay in discriminating between latent and active TB using a cut off of 12.5 SCF per million PBMCs. Conclusion Our data suggest that IL-2 based ELISPOT with AlaDH antigen may be of help in discriminating children with active from those with latent TB.
Multiple Sclerosis: The Role of Cytokines in Pathogenesis and in Therapies
Amedeo Amedei,Domenico Prisco,Mario Milco DElios
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms131013438
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis, the clinical features and pathological correlate for which were first described by Charcot, is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease with unknown etiology and variable clinical evolution. Although neuroinflammation is a descriptive denominator in multiple sclerosis based on histopathological observations, namely the penetration of leukocytes into the central nervous system, the clinical symptoms of relapses, remissions and progressive paralysis are the result of losses of myelin and neurons. In the absence of etiological factors as targets for prevention and therapy, the definition of molecular mechanisms that form the basis of inflammation, demyelination and toxicity for neurons have led to a number of treatments that slow down disease progression in specific patient cohorts, but that do not cure the disease. Current therapies are directed to block the immune processes, both innate and adaptive, that are associated with multiple sclerosis. In this review, we analyze the role of cytokines in the multiple sclerosis pathogenesis and current/future use of them in treatments of multiple sclerosis.
Music and medicine
Donatella Lippi, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina, John Patrick DElios
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S11378
Abstract: sic and medicine Perspectives (7771) Total Article Views Authors: Donatella Lippi, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina, John Patrick D’Elios Published Date August 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 137 - 141 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S11378 Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios1 1History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.
Natural Contaminants in Drinking Waters (Arsenic, Boron, Fluorine and Vanadium) in the Southern Pampean Plain, Argentina  [PDF]
Martín E. Espósito, Juan D. Paoloni, Mario E. Sequeira, Nilda M. Amiotti, María del C. Blanco
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.21011
Abstract: This research aims at making a diagnosis of the presence of arsenic, boron, fluorine and vanadium in the waters from the basin of El Divisorio stream, tributary of Paso de las Piedras reservoir, in the southwest of Buenos Aires Province. This storage is used to provide water to the cities of Bahía Blanca and Punta Alta with a population of approximately 400,000 inhabitants. A selective and specific sampling of wells, perforations and superficial watercourses was made in 46 points, in an area of nearly 400 km2. Groundwaters had arsenic (max. 0.114 mg/l) exceeding the reference guideline in 97.3% of the samples, boron (max. 1.42 mg/l), vanadium (max. 0.8 mg/l) and fluorine (max. 6.6 mg/l), being respect- tively, 91.9%, 82.9%, and 67.6%. Regarding the superficial flow, while arsenic concentrations were higher than the limit in 100% of the cases (max. 0.072 mg/l), 88.9% corresponded to elevated boron (max. 1 mg/l) and vanadium (max. 0.23 mg/l) and only 22.2% to fluorine (max. 3.18 mg/l) ones. In all these cases, concentrations exceed the reference guideline values suggested by the World Health Organization, the Argentine Food Code and the Environmental Protec- tion Agency. The presence of these contaminants that finally could determine the quality of the water resource entering the reservoir is attributed to the natural characteristics of the environment since contributions by anthropic actions have not been detected in the area. The most critical sectors in the basin were identified in order to stress the possible negative influence of consuming these waters on the community’s health, with the purpose of reporting the results to institutions, authorities and the population and applying them to preventive medicine.
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