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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3315 matches for " Mariko Watanabe "
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Effects of Nonuniform Outflow and Buoyancy on Drag Coefficient Acting on a Spherical Particle  [PDF]
Mariko Watanabe, Joji Yahagi
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization (JFCMV) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2017.54008
Abstract: Pyrolysis gas jets out from the surface of a solid fuel particle when heated. This study experimentally observes the occurrence of gas jetsfrom heated solid fuel particles. Results reveal a local gas jet occurs from the particle’s surface when its temperature reaches the point at which a pyrolysis reaction occurs. To investigate the influence of the gas jet on particle motion, a numerical simulation of the uniform flow around a spherical particle with a nonuniform outflow or high surface temperature is conducted, and the drag force acting on the spherical particle is estimated. In the numerical study, the magnitude of the outflow velocity, direction of outflow, and Rayleigh number,?i.e., particle surface temperature, are altered, and outflow velocities and the Rayleigh number are set based on the experiment. The drag coefficient is found to decrease when an outflow occurs in the direction against the mainstream; this drag coefficient at a higher Rayleigh number is slightly higher than that at a Rayleigh number of zero.
Effects of Continuous Intravenous Infusion of Dexmedetomidine on the Duration of Spinal Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial  [PDF]
Mariko Watanabe, Masahiro Kanazawa, Toshiyasu Suzuki
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2018.83006
Abstract: Background: Spinal anesthesia with sedation is a common anesthetic technique in infraumbilical surgeries. Dexmedetomidine has been widely used as a sedative during spinal anesthesia, and is recognized as an adjuvant that prolongs the duration of spinal anesthesia. We compared the effects of a continuous intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine to provide intraoperative sedation on the duration of sensory and motor blockade induced by spinal anesthesia, with those of midazolam. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed on 40 patients, aged between 20 and 75 years, who requested intraoperative sedation, and were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II, and underwent elective surgeries under spinal anesthesia. After spinal anesthesia with 13 mg (2.6 ml) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, patients were randomized to receive intravenous dexmedetomidine 3 μg/kg/h for 10 mins followed by an infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h (Group D), or intravenous midazolam 0.15 mg/kg/h for 10 mins followed by an infusion of 0.025 mg/kg/h (Group M). Sedation was titrated to Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) score of 3. Sensory and motor blockade was evaluated using the pinprick test and modified Bromage scale, respectively. Results: The time taken to achieve OAA/S score 3 was similar in the two groups. The maximal level of sensory blockade was 5.3 ± 1.3 min in group D and 4.1 ± 1.5 in group M (P = 0.03). No significant differences were observed in the time taken to achieve the maximal level or the two-segment regression time of sensory blockade between the two groups. The time to sensory regression to the L2 level was significantly longer in group D than in group M (234.6 ± 78.1 mins versus 172.4 ± 41.5 mins, respectively, P = 0.008). The time to motor regression to modified Bromage score 1 was significantly longer in group D than in group M (232.2 ± 79.3 versus 176.5 ± 48.8, respectively, P = 0.02). Conclusion: Continuous intravenous dexmedetomidine to provide sedation during spinal anesthesia significantly prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade induced by spinal anesthesia over that with midazolam.
Quit smoking improves gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and quality of life  [PDF]
Kou Nakajima, Akihito Nagahara, Akihiko Kurosawa, Kuniaki Seyama, Daisuke Asaoka, Taro Osada, Mariko Hojo, Sumio Watanabe
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.311114
Abstract: Background: Smoking is considered to be risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The present study aimed to reveal whether quit smoking improves GERD symptoms and QOL of patients. Methods: In this prospective study, 33 patients who participated in a 12-week quit smoking program filled out the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) questionnaire, and SF8 QOL questionnaire. Patients filled out the questionnaires at baseline and during the program at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. In the FSSG, the responses were scored and the reflux score (RS), dysmotility score (DS) and total score (TS) were calculated. Results: There were 22 males and 11 females. Their mean age was 54.8 ± 13.0 (mean ± SD) yr, BMI was 22.9 ± 4.0, and duration of smoking was 33.5 ± 12.5 years. Ten patients belonged to GERD subgroup (baselineFSSGscore ≥ 8). All patients were successful at quit smoking. Scores of TS/RS/DS are 8.6 ± 1.8 (mean ± SE)/4.2 ± 0.9/4.5 ± 0.9 at baseline, 4.7 ± 1.6**/2.5 ± 0.9**/2.3 ± 0.7** at 2 w, 5.7 ± 1.3**/2.6 ± 0.6*/3.0 ± 0.7* at 4 w, 4.5 ± 1.4*/2.2 ± 0.8*/2.3 ± 0.8* at 8 w and 3.7 ± 1.2**/1.7 ± 0.6**/2.0 ± 0.7** at 12 w, respectively (**p < 0.01, *p < 0.05 vs. baseline). Among GERD subgroup, Scores of TS/RS/DS are 18.0 ± 2.9/8.9 ± 1.6/9.1 ± 1.5 at baseline, 8.8 ± 3.0/5.1 ± 1.7/3.7 ± 1.6 at 2 w, 10.8 ± 2.9/5.4 ± 1.6/5.4 ± 1.5 at 4 w, 7.6 ± 2.9*/4.1 ± 1.6/3.5 ± 1.5* at 8 w and 7.1 ± 2.9*/3.2 ± 1.6*/3.9 ± 1.5* at 12w, respectively. Regarding QOL, physical component score has significantly improved at 2, 4, 8 and 12 w and mental component score at 4w, respectively. Conclusions: Quit smoking significantly improved not only GERD symptoms but also QOL, indicating that quit smoking might be an option in the treatment strategy of GERD symptoms.
Symptoms of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease: A Comparative Study between Elderly and Younger Patients in Japan  [PDF]
Mariko Hojo, Akihito Nagahara, Daisuke Asaoka, Hiroya Ueyama, Yuji Shimada, Kenshi Matsumoto, Sumio Watanabe
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.614202
Abstract: The difference in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms between elderly and younger GERD patients has not been fully studied. Our aim was to examine if there was any difference in the degree of GERD symptoms between elderly and younger patients with reflux esophagitis. Patients who were diagnosed by endoscopic examination as having reflux esophagitis and who answered the questionnaire on the frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG) were included. Elderly and younger adult patients were defined as patients aged 65 and over or less than 65, respectively. 596 subjects were included. 184 subjects (mean 71.1 years; 114 males) were classified into the Elderly group, and 412 subjects (mean 51.2 years; 307 males) into the Younger group. The mean FSSG score of the Elderly and Younger groups was 6.7 and 8.4, respectively (p = 0.0024). Among those with severe esophagitis, the mean FSSG score of the Elderly and Younger groups was 8.5 and 8.7, respectively (p = 0.58). Although elderly patients tended to have less degree of GERD symptoms than younger patients, these findings suggest that there may be no significant age-related difference in complaints of GERD symptoms among severe reflux esophagitis patients.
Difficult Intubation in a Patient with Dysphagia after Posterior Occipitocervical Fusion: A Case Report  [PDF]
Junichi Nishiyama, Aki Ando, Tomohiko Murata, Mariko Watanabe, Hajime Yamazaki, Satoru Saito, Toshiyasu Suzuki
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2017.75012
Abstract: The authors encountered a case involving difficult intubation during anesthesia for revision of cervical fixation angle in a 62-year-old woman, with a history of chronic rheumatoid arthritis, who experienced dysphagia after initial posterior occipitocervical fusion to correct atlantoaxial subluxation. Two days after initial surgery, she developed trismus with neck flexion and dysphagia, and underwent revision surgery. General anesthesia was planned; however, tracheal intubation using the McGrath laryngoscope and bronchofiberscope was difficult, which prolonged anesthesia induction. Narrowing of the oral and pharyngeal cavities associated with overcorrection of the cervical spine was believed to be the reason for difficulty in manipulating the tracheal intubation devices. In posterior occipitocervical fusion, intraoperative evaluation of the occipito-second cervical vertebra (O-C2) angle is reported to be useful in preventing postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia, and avoids the need for revision of fixation angle. However, when revision surgery is needed, selection of airway management methods and tracheal intubation devices are important considerations because patients are likely to have restricted mobility in the cervical spine and narrowing of the oral and pharyngeal cavities.
Dodecylamine Derivative of Hydroxocobalamin Acts as a Potent Inhibitor of Cobalamin-Dependent Methionine Synthase in Mammalian Cultured COS-7 Cells  [PDF]
Tomohiro Bito, Mariko Yasui, Toshio Iwaki, Yukinori Yabuta, Tsuyoshi Ichiyanagi, Ryoichi Yamaji, Yoshihisa Nakano, Hiroshi Inui, Fumio Watanabe
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.514143
Abstract: We evaluated whether the dodecylamine derivative of hydroxocobalamin acts as a potent inhibitor of cobalamin-dependent enzymes in an African green monkey kidney cell, COS-7. When the dodecylamine derivative (1.0 μmol/L) did not show any cytotoxicity in the cultured cells, the derivative could not affect methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (holo-enzyme) activity, but significantly inhibit methionine synthase (holo-enzyme) activity in the cell homogenates of COS-7 grown in 1.0 μmol/L hydroxocobalamin-supplemented medium. An immunoblot analysis indicated that the dodecylamine derivative could not decrease the protein level of methionine synthase, but significantly inhibit the enzyme activity.
Clinicopathological Evaluation and Prognostic Analysis in Breast Cancer Patients with Brain Metastasis  [PDF]
Naoko Minatani, Hirokazu Tanino, Yoshimasa Kosaka, Mariko Kikuchi, Hiroshi Nishimiya, Mina Waraya, Hiroshi Katoh, Takumo Enomoto, Norihiko Sengoku, Masahiko Watanabe
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.68079
Abstract: Background: Brain metastases are diagnosed in 5% - 15% of patients with breast cancer. Clinical management of brain metastases appears to be crucial in improving the prognosis of patients with breast cancer that has metastasized to the brain. However, few studies have investigated whether treatment of metastatic brain tumors would lead to improved prognosis. Methods: A total of 41 breast cancer patients whose tumors metastasized to the brain and who were diagnosed and treated at our hospital were enrolled. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of brain metastases and to identify the factors that may affect the treatment and prognosis of patients with brain metastases. Results: There were more patients with HER2 and triple negative subtypes than of the luminal subtype. The median time from the initiation of breast cancer treatment to the onset of brain metastasis was 31 months (range, 7 - 134 months). Significantly greater disease-specific survival (DSS) was observed in patients who had a performance status of 0 - 2 at the time of diagnosis of metastatic brain tumors than those with a performance status of 3 - 4 (p = 0.04). DSS was also significantly greater in patients who underwent surgery to remove brain metastases and in patients treated with systemic therapy (p = 0.0007 and 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: It may be possible to improve the prognosis of patients with brain metastases if lesions are detected early enough when the patients’ performance status is still good. In order for these findings to be definitive, however, results of future prospective studies are eagerly awaited.
Effect of Peptidase Inhibitors on Dynorphin A (1-17) or (1-13)-Induced Antinociception and Toxicity at Spinal Level  [PDF]
Mitsumasa Matsuda, Masanobu Yoshikawa, Takugi Kan, Mariko Watanabe, Junko Ajimi, Shigeru Takahashi, Masaaki Miura, Kenji Ito, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Toshiyasu Suzuki
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2017.82003
Abstract: Our group has earlier demonstrated that three enzymes sensitive to peptidase inhibitors (PIs), amastatin (A)-, captopril (C)-, and phosphoramidon (P), played an important role in inactivation of enkephalins at the spinal level. Dynorphin-converting enzyme (DCE) hydrolyzes dynorphin (Dyn) A (1-17) or Dyn A (1-13) mainly at the Arg6-Arg7 bond. Dynorphin A and its derived peptides interact with opioid and glutamate receptors at their N- and C-terminals, respectively. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive potency and toxicity of intrathecal administered Dyn A (1-17), Dyn A (1-13), or Dyn A (1-6) under pretreatment with ACP and/or the DCE inhibitor p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PHMB). The effect of these PIs on Dyn A (1-17)-induced inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions in mouse vas deferens was also investigated. The inhibitory potency of Dyn A (1-17) on electrically-evoked contractions in mouse vas deferens under pretreatment with ACP was higher than that with AC, AP, or CP. Pretreatment with ACP augmented Dyn A (1-17) or (1-13)-induced antinociception by approximately 50- or 30-fold with no sign of allodynia when administered intrathecally at low doses. Pretreatment with ACP and PHMB induced neuropathy. These findings showed that intrathecal administration of low-dose Dyn A (1-17) or DynA (1-13) increased antinociception under pretreatment with ACP, but without signs of allodynia in rat.
Effects of lifestyle education program for type 2 diabetes patients in clinics: study design of a cluster randomized trial
Misa Adachi, Kazue Yamaoka, Mariko Watanabe, Masako Nishikawa, Eisuke Hida, Itsuro Kobayashi, Toshiro Tango
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-742
Abstract: Although many interventional studies of lifestyle education for persons with diabetes in hospitals have been reported, only a few have been clinic-based studies employing an evidence-based lifestyle education program. This article describes the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of lifestyle education for patients with type 2 diabetes in clinics by registered dietitians.In Japan, general practitioners generally have their own medical clinics to provide medical care for outpatients in the community, including those with type 2 diabetes. With the collaboration of such general practitioners, the study patients were enrolled in the present study. Twenty general practitioners were randomly allocated to each provide patients for entry into either an intervention group (10) or a control group (10). In total, 200 participants will be included in the study. The intervention group will receive intensive education on lifestyle improvement related to type 2 diabetes by registered dietitians in clinics. Lifestyle education will be conducted several times during the study period. The control group will receive information on dietary intake and standard advice on glycemic control by registered dietitians. The primary endpoint is the change from the baseline value of HbA1c at 6 months. Data on health behavior and related issues will be gathered continuously over a 6-month period.This is the first study to evaluate lifestyle education in clinics by a cluster randomization trial in Japan. The proposed study will provide practical information about the usefulness of the intensive lifestyle improvement education program in primary care settings. The study was started in September 2007 and entry of subjects was completed in December 2010. Data on the effect evaluation will be available in 2011.UMIN000004049The number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rapidly increasing, making T2D a serious health problem worldwide. The number of diabetic patien
Evaluation of Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Power, and Antioxidant Potential of Breastmilk of Breast-Feeding Mothers  [PDF]
Naoko Kuramoto, Mariko Kitagawa
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.98083
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress, antioxidant power, and antioxidant potential of breastmilk of breast-feeding mothers from the early postpartum period to the first 3 months postpartum, and to examine the dynamics and the relationships among them. Method: For 47 pu-erperant women who gave vaginal birth without any pregnancy complications, the oxidative stress levels (d-ROMs levels) and antioxidant power (BAP levels) in the maternal plasma as well as antioxidant potential of breastmilk (BAP levels in breastmilk) were measured 3 times, i.e., in the early puerperium (4 or 5 days after giving birth), one month after giving birth, and 3 months after giving birth. Results: The d-ROMs levels in the maternal plasma were significantly high in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually in the post-partum period (p < 0.001). On the other hand, BAP levels were significantly low in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and increased to the almost normal level during one month after giving birth. BAP levels in breastmilk were significantly high in the early puerperium compared with the other periods (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually until 3 months after giving birth (p < 0.001). BAP levels in breastmilk in the early puerperium were higher compared with the maternal BAP levels, and there was a positive correlation between BAP levels in breast-milk and those in the maternal plasma (p < 0.05). Discussion: Regarding the oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system of breast-feeding mothers, the d-ROMs level was highest and the BAP level was lowest in the early puerperium. The BAP level then showed a clear tendency to recover in the first 3 months after giving birth. Conclusion: When the maternal antioxidant potential remains at a low level after giving birth, careful consideration should be given to the mother’s health and wellbeing because there is a possibility that it might affect the antioxidant potential of breastmilk.
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