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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1351 matches for " Mariko Hara "
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Expanding a Care Network for People with Dementia and their Carers Through Musicking: Participant Observation with
Mariko Hara
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2011,
Abstract: Music use in dementia care often takes place within a music therapy context, where music therapy sessions aim to reduce agitated behaviour, access emotions or enhance inter-personal communication. Such sessions usually take place within care homes and their effect has been evaluated by a number of studies. However, there is little research on music use that takes place outside of care homes (e.g. in community centres) for people with dementia who are cared for at home by their family. This paper discusses this type of music use, focusing on the meaning of weekly local music making activities in relation to every day dementia care. I use empirical data from a study of a community based music activity called "Singing for the Brain" (SFTB) run by the Alzheimer's Society in the UK. The data was collected through extensive participant observation research and interviews with organisers, carers and care receivers. The preliminary findings from the data analysis are discussed: how SFTB can be seen as a ecological practice; its various “spin-off’ effects in the everyday care of the members with dementia; how SFTB, together with other local music groups, constitute the music and care world in the town; and how this develops into fluid support networks to support local people with dementia and their carers.
Music in Dementia Care: Increased Understanding Through Mixed Research Methods
Mariko Hara
Music and Arts in Action , 2011,
Abstract: Over the past decade there has been an increased interest in the wide variety of issues involved in the care of individuals with dementia. One particular area of research is the effect of music on those with dementia, commonly studied through the perspectives of neuroscience and (the more applied) music therapy. There is, however, a black box common to both these fields: music is seen as an input and its effect as a simple output. In treating the human (brain) as merely an object to stimulate with music or sound, the socio-cultural context of musical interaction is omitted from the analysis. This article discusses the employment of mixed research methods adapted specifically to explore the use of music in dementia care and to open this black box. In particular, this article explores the use of ethnographic participant observations and semi-structured interviews with individuals with dementia, their families/carers and (volunteer) staff of Singing for the Brain (SFTB) in a British town. The article concludes with a discussion of the preliminary themes generated by this mixed-methods approach (such as the importance of ‘relationships’), and the importance of examining music as a ‘catalyst’ in building relationships. Although the issues examined in this article are specific to dementia, similar sensitive issues may be found in research on health and other creative (therapeutic) activities for people with dementia.
Periodontal disease and atherosclerosis from the viewpoint of the relationship between community periodontal index of treatment needs and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity
Koichi Miyaki, Katsunori Masaki, Mariko Naito, Toru Naito, Keika Hoshi, Asako Hara, Shugo Tohyama, Takeo Nakayama
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-131
Abstract: The study design was a cross-sectional study. Subjects were 291 healthy male workers in Japan. We used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) score, average probing depth and gingival bleeding index (rate of bleeding gums) to assess the severity of periodontal disease. We also used the Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (baPWV) as the index for the development of atherosclerosis.The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of atherosclerosis in relation to the CPITN score was 1.41 [95% CI: 1.16–1.73]. However, after adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure and smoking, the CPITN score had no relationship with atherosclerosis (adjusted OR: 0.91 [0.68–1.20]).Our results show no relationship between mild periodontal disease and atherosclerosis after appropriate adjustments.For many people, periodontal disease causes problems in day-to-day life due to loss of teeth. Recently, it has been argued that periodontal disease may be an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The potential mechanisms that could explain a role for periodontal disease in atherosclerosis are general inflammatory mechanisms and specific bacterial interactions. One hypothesis is that the cause of atherosclerosis is direct injury to vascular endothelial cells by an infecting organism; another is that inflammatory cytokines contribute to atherosclerosis [1,2]. It has been reported that the infected or inflamed area in periodontitis is associated with macrophage activation via increased serum lipopolysaccharide concentrations [3]. It has also been reported that subjects with advanced periodontal disease had endothelial dysfunction and evidence of systemic inflammation, possibly placing them at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease [4]. The relationship between periodontal disease and diseases of the blood vessels, such as peripheral vascular disease and coronary heart disease (CHD), has been discussed in several reports [5-9]. For example, a meta-analysis of nine
Quest for Potentials in the Quintessence Scenario  [PDF]
Tetsuya Hara
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.42027

The time evolution of the equation of state w for quintessence scenario with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative (d3w/da3) with respect to the scale factor a, in order to predict the future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of w for general potential V is derived and applied to several types of potentials. They are the inverse power-law (V = M4 + α/Qα), the exponential ?\"\", the mixed \"\" , the cosine \"\" ?and the Gaussian types \"\" , which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is n, it is necessary to find at least for n + 2 independent observations to identify the potential for0m and the evolution of the scalar field (Q and \"\"

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Power, and Antioxidant Potential of Breastmilk of Breast-Feeding Mothers  [PDF]
Naoko Kuramoto, Mariko Kitagawa
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.98083
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress, antioxidant power, and antioxidant potential of breastmilk of breast-feeding mothers from the early postpartum period to the first 3 months postpartum, and to examine the dynamics and the relationships among them. Method: For 47 pu-erperant women who gave vaginal birth without any pregnancy complications, the oxidative stress levels (d-ROMs levels) and antioxidant power (BAP levels) in the maternal plasma as well as antioxidant potential of breastmilk (BAP levels in breastmilk) were measured 3 times, i.e., in the early puerperium (4 or 5 days after giving birth), one month after giving birth, and 3 months after giving birth. Results: The d-ROMs levels in the maternal plasma were significantly high in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually in the post-partum period (p < 0.001). On the other hand, BAP levels were significantly low in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and increased to the almost normal level during one month after giving birth. BAP levels in breastmilk were significantly high in the early puerperium compared with the other periods (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually until 3 months after giving birth (p < 0.001). BAP levels in breastmilk in the early puerperium were higher compared with the maternal BAP levels, and there was a positive correlation between BAP levels in breast-milk and those in the maternal plasma (p < 0.05). Discussion: Regarding the oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system of breast-feeding mothers, the d-ROMs level was highest and the BAP level was lowest in the early puerperium. The BAP level then showed a clear tendency to recover in the first 3 months after giving birth. Conclusion: When the maternal antioxidant potential remains at a low level after giving birth, careful consideration should be given to the mother’s health and wellbeing because there is a possibility that it might affect the antioxidant potential of breastmilk.
Effects of Nonuniform Outflow and Buoyancy on Drag Coefficient Acting on a Spherical Particle  [PDF]
Mariko Watanabe, Joji Yahagi
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization (JFCMV) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2017.54008
Abstract: Pyrolysis gas jets out from the surface of a solid fuel particle when heated. This study experimentally observes the occurrence of gas jetsfrom heated solid fuel particles. Results reveal a local gas jet occurs from the particle’s surface when its temperature reaches the point at which a pyrolysis reaction occurs. To investigate the influence of the gas jet on particle motion, a numerical simulation of the uniform flow around a spherical particle with a nonuniform outflow or high surface temperature is conducted, and the drag force acting on the spherical particle is estimated. In the numerical study, the magnitude of the outflow velocity, direction of outflow, and Rayleigh number,?i.e., particle surface temperature, are altered, and outflow velocities and the Rayleigh number are set based on the experiment. The drag coefficient is found to decrease when an outflow occurs in the direction against the mainstream; this drag coefficient at a higher Rayleigh number is slightly higher than that at a Rayleigh number of zero.
A Pilot Study of Antibody Drug Therapy to Regulate Cell Adhesion in Dental Implants  [PDF]
Mariko Kawai, Kiyoshi Ohura
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2017.711046
Abstract: Dental implant therapy is a highly effective treatment for recovering occlusion after tooth loss. An important factor in the success of dental implants is establishing strong osseointegration. If more epithelial cells migrate to the implant-bone interface than mesenchymal stem cells, effective osseointegration may fail. Therefore, controlling epithelial cell adhesion and motility would be an effective strategy to increase the success rate of osseointegration. Laminin-332 is a major component of the basement membrane and is composed of three chains (α3, β3 and γ2). It is well-known that laminin-332 regulates cellular functions such as adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. These biological functions depend on changes in the structural arrangement of laminin-332 by proteolytic cleavage. It is well-known that cleavage of the α3 chain between its LG domains gives laminin-332 its biological function. In this study, we focused on LG domain cleavage and developed antibodies that target the LG domain cleavage site. We attempted to change the biological function of laminin-332 to control cell adhesion for the purpose of regulating dental implant therapy.
Association between vitamin D receptor gene haplotypes and chronic periodontitis among Japanese men
Mariko Naito, Koichi Miyaki, Toru Naito, Ling Zhang, Keika Hoshi, Asako Hara, Katsunori Masaki, Shugo Tohyama, Masaaki Muramatsu, Nobuyuki Hamajima, Takeo Nakayama
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Background: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in a variety of biological processes, such as bone metabolism and modulation of the immune response. Recent findings suggest that the pathway involving bone mineral density-mediated effects is important for the development of periodontitis, but their effects of combined VDR gene polymorphisms have not been confirmed on periodontitis. We assessed the relationship between ApaI, BsmI, and FokI VDR polymorphisms and the risk of severe chronic periodontitis among Japanese adult men. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 97 unrelated healthy Japanese men (mean age: 45.6 years, range: 22-59). A clinical examination was performed at a worksite health checkup, and information was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the VDR ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Results: F-carriers of FokI VDR polymorphisms were less likely to develop severe chronic periodontitis than non-F-carriers (p = 0.09). The ApaI and BsmI VDR polymorphisms did not show significant differences in the alleles or genotypes between the subjects with or without severe chronic periodontitis. The haplotype analysis of the three combined VDR polymorphisms revealed that the Abf homozygote had a notably higher prevalence of severe chronic periodontitis than the others, and adjustments for age, smoking status, number of teeth present, and prevalence of diabetes did not change this association (OR = 7.5; 95% CI = 1.6-34.4; p = 0.01). Conclusion: The VDR haplotype constructed from the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms is related to the risk of severe chronic periodontitis in Japanese men.
Increased Cerebral Cortex Perfusion in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Disorder Following Cilostazol Administration, Two Cases Report  [PDF]
Yukihiro Hara, Shigeru Obayashi
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.34043

Objective: In our search for a new augmentation therapy for stroke patients, we administered cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent. Subjects: The patients suffered from mild hemiparesis or cognitive disorder showing reduced cerebral perfusion in the prefrontal cortex. Methods: We evaluated the functional cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after the administration of cilostazol using near-infrared resonance spectroscopy (NIRS) during a verbal fluency task (VFT). Results: For the patient with cognitive disorder, statistically significant improvements were observed in the number of generated words in the VFT before and after administration of 50 mg cilostazol (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Another patient without cognitive disorder, however, showed no significant VFT improvement after administration of cilostazol. Effect size data revealed large or very large effects of cilostazol on brain activation (oxy-Hb levels) at the affected side prefrontal cortex for both patients. The patient with cognitive disorder showed significant improvement in VFT performance as well as an increase in bilateral prefrontal CBF after cilostazol administration. Discussion: These findings suggest that, for patients with cerebrovascular lesions suffering from cognitive disorder, cilostazol may be promising as a drug to improve cognitive function in addition to preventing recurrent cerebral infarction.

Effects of Dietary Citric Acid on Metabolic Indicators and Gene Expression in the Skeletal Muscles of Fasted Mice  [PDF]
Yurie Hara, Nakamichi Watanabe
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.411145

Citric acid is recognized and utilized as a dietary supplement for its ability to eliminate fatigue. However, the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying this effect has not been elucidated. This study investigated the effect of intragastric citric acid administration on the energy metabolism and gene expression in the skeletal muscles of mice that had been fasted without exercise, using biochemical analyses of metabolic indicators and DNA microarrays. Expression of the genes involved in the glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids were not affected by citric acid administration. However, citric acid increased the level of blood glucose and expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. These results indicate that citric acid ingestion may eliminate fatigue by promoting gluconeogenesis.

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