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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10087 matches for " Marijke Frank "
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Introducing Jamaican Creole into the Jamaican Educational Curriculum
Marijke Frank
The English Languages : History, Diaspora, Culture , 2010,
Abstract: This paper argues that the low social status of Jamaican Creole is significantly influenced by its position in Jamaican education, and that the mandatory use of Jamaican Standard English in education shows a tendency to fossilize class divisions. The paper starts by providing a short overview of the impact of colonialism on language policy and education. It will then analyze in what ways Jamaican class relations and the languages of instruction are connected. Selected examples will demonstrate the benefits of using Jamaican Creole in education. It will further discuss possible consequences of introducing Jamaican Creole into the school curriculum for its socio-cultural and political position in Jamaica.
Skeletal Muscle Function during Exercise—Fine-Tuning of Diverse Subsystems by Nitric Oxide
Frank Suhr,Sebastian Gehlert,Marijke Grau,Wilhelm Bloch
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14047109
Abstract: Skeletal muscle is responsible for altered acute and chronic workload as induced by exercise. Skeletal muscle adaptations range from immediate change of contractility to structural adaptation to adjust the demanded performance capacities. These processes are regulated by mechanically and metabolically induced signaling pathways, which are more or less involved in all of these regulations. Nitric oxide is one of the central signaling molecules involved in functional and structural adaption in different cell types. It is mainly produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and by non-enzymatic pathways also in skeletal muscle. The relevance of a NOS-dependent NO signaling in skeletal muscle is underlined by the differential subcellular expression of NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3, and the alteration of NO production provoked by changes of workload. In skeletal muscle, a variety of highly relevant tasks to maintain skeletal muscle integrity and proper signaling mechanisms during adaptation processes towards mechanical and metabolic stimulations are taken over by NO signaling. The NO signaling can be mediated by cGMP-dependent and -independent signaling, such as S-nitrosylation-dependent modulation of effector molecules involved in contractile and metabolic adaptation to exercise. In this review, we describe the most recent findings of NO signaling in skeletal muscle with a special emphasis on exercise conditions. However, to gain a more detailed understanding of the complex role of NO signaling for functional adaptation of skeletal muscle (during exercise), additional sophisticated studies are needed to provide deeper insights into NO-mediated signaling and the role of non-enzymatic-derived NO in skeletal muscle physiology.
Moderate Exercise Promotes Human RBC-NOS Activity, NO Production and Deformability through Akt Kinase Pathway
Frank Suhr, Julian Brenig, Rebecca Müller, Hilke Behrens, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045982
Abstract: Background Nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in human red blood cells (RBCs) was shown to depend on shear stress and to exhibit important biological functions, such as inhibition of platelet activation. In the present study we hypothesized that exercise-induced shear stress stimulates RBC-NOS activation pathways, NO signaling, and deformability of human RBCs. Methods/Findings Fifteen male subjects conducted an exercise test with venous blood sampling before and after running on a treadmill for 1 hour. Immunohistochemical staining as well as western blot analysis were used to determine phosphorylation and thus activation of Akt kinase and RBC-NOS as well as accumulation of cyclic guanylyl monophosphate (cGMP) induced by the intervention. The data revealed that activation of NO upstream located enzyme Akt kinase was significantly increased after the test. Phosphorylation of RBC-NOSSer1177 was also significantly increased after exercise, indicating activation of RBC-NOS through Akt kinase. Total detectable RBC-NOS content and phosphorylation of RBC-NOSThr495 were not affected by the intervention. NO production by RBCs, determined by DAF fluorometry, and RBC deformability, measured via laser-assisted-optical-rotational red cell analyzer, were also significantly increased after the exercise test. The content of the NO downstream signaling molecule cGMP increased after the test. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt kinase pathway led to a decrease in RBC-NOS activation, NO production and RBC deformability. Conclusion/Significance This human in vivo study first-time provides strong evidence that exercise-induced shear stress stimuli activate RBC-NOS via the PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. Actively RBC-NOS-produced NO in human RBCs is critical to maintain RBC deformability. Our data gain insights into human RBC-NOS regulation by exercise and, therefore, will stimulate new therapeutic exercise-based approaches for patients with microvascular disorders.
RBC-NOS-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of Cytoskeletal Proteins Improves RBC Deformability
Marijke Grau, Sebastian Pauly, Jamal Ali, Katja Walpurgis, Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Bloch, Frank Suhr
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056759
Abstract: Background Red blood cells (RBC) possess a nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) whose activation depends on the PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. RBC-NOS-produced NO exhibits important biological functions like maintaining RBC deformability. Until now, the cellular target structure for NO, to exert its influence on RBC deformability, remains unknown. In the present study we analyzed the modification of RBC-NOS activity by pharmacological treatments, the resulting influence on RBC deformability and provide first evidence for possible target proteins of RBC-NOS-produced NO in the RBC cytoskeletal scaffold. Methods/Findings Blood from fifteen male subjects was incubated with the NOS substrate L-arginine to directly stimulate enzyme activity. Direct inhibition of enzyme activity was induced by L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)-ornithin (L-NIO). Indirect stimulation and inhibition of RBC-NOS were achieved by applying insulin and wortmannin, respectively, substances known to affect PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyli?midazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide(cPTIO) were additionally applied as NO positive and negative controls, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine phosphorylation and thus activation of RBC-NOS. As a marker for NO synthesis nitrite was measured in plasma and RBCs using chemiluminescence detection. S-nitrosylation of erythrocyte proteins was determined by biotin switch assay and modified proteins were identified using LC-MS. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry. The data reveal that activated RBC-NOS leads to increased NO production, S-nitrosylation of RBC proteins and RBC deformability, whereas RBC-NOS inhibition resulted in contrary effects. Conclusion/Significance This study first-time provides strong evidence that RBC-NOS-produced NO modifies RBC deformability through direct S-nitrosylation of cytoskeleton proteins, most likely α- and β-spectrins. Our data, therefore, gain novel insights into biological functions of RBC-NOS by connecting impaired RBC deformability abilities to specific posttranslational modifications of RBC proteins. By identifying likely NO-target proteins in RBC, our results will stimulate new therapeutic approaches for patients with microvascular disorders.
S. Craft-Giepmans, Stadhouders in beeld. Beeldvorming van de stadhouders van Oranje-Nassau in contemporaine grafiek 1570-1700
Marijke Bruggeman
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2009,
The magneto-ionic medium in the Milky Way
Marijke Haverkorn
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: One way in which the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey has made an important contribution to the understanding of the Galactic interstellar medium is through its polarization surveys. Investigation of these data has enabled a big step in the study of magnetic fields in the interstellar medium and a range of discrete, extended, interstellar objects. In this review, I will discuss the role that the magnetic field plays in the interstellar medium, summarizing the ways in which magnetic field interacts with the other components in the Milky Way. Magnetic fields in the Galactic halo are discussed, and an outlook to a number of successor surveys of the polarized CGPS in the near future is given.
Magnetic Fields in the Milky Way
Marijke Haverkorn
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-44625-6_17
Abstract: This chapter presents a review of observational studies to determine the magnetic field in the Milky Way, both in the disk and in the halo, focused on recent developments and on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar medium. I discuss some terminology which is confusingly or inconsistently used and try to summarize current status of our knowledge on magnetic field configurations and strengths in the Milky Way. Although many open questions still exist, more and more conclusions can be drawn on the large-scale and small-scale components of the Galactic magnetic field. The chapter is concluded with a brief outlook to observational projects in the near future.
Characterization of proximal pulmonary arterial cells from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients
Rozenn Quarck, Marijke Wynants, Alicja Ronisz, Maria Sepulveda, Frank Wuytack, Dirk Van Raemdonck, Bart Meyns, Marion Delcroix
Respiratory Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-13-27
Abstract: Primary cultures of proximal PAEC and PASMC from patients with CTEPH, with non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH) and lung donors have been established. PAEC and PASMC have been characterized by immunofluorescence using specific markers. Expression of smooth muscle specific markers within the pulmonary vascular wall has been studied by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Mitogenic activity and migratory capacity of PASMC and PAEC have been investigated in vitro.PAEC express CD31 on their surface, von Willebrand factor in Weibel-Palade bodies and take up acetylated LDL. PASMC express various differentiation markers including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC). In vascular tissue from CTEPH and non-thromboembolic PH patients, expression of α-SMA and desmin is down-regulated compared to lung donors; desmin expression is also down-regulated in vascular tissue from CTEPH compared to non-thromboembolic PH patients. A low proportion of α-SMA positive cells express desmin and SMMHC in the neointima of proximal pulmonary arteries from CTEPH patients. Serum-induced mitogenic activity of PAEC and PASMC, as well as migratory capacity of PASMC, were increased in CTEPH only.Modified proliferative and/or migratory responses of PASMC and PAEC in vitro, associated to a proliferative phenotype of PASMC suggest that PASMC and PAEC could contribute to proximal vascular remodeling in CTEPH.Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is one of the main causes of pulmonary hypertension. CTEPH is characterized by the presence of unresolved thromboemboli associated to fibrous stenosis in the proximal pulmonary arteries. This is resulting in obstruction of proximal pulmonary arteries, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension and progressive right heart failure. It might be caused by single or recurrent pulmonary embolism and/or local formation of thrombi. Proximal obliteration of pulmonary artery, r
Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli Induce Different Cytokine Production Patterns in Pregnant Women
Marijke M. Faas, Alina Kunnen, Daphne C. Dekker, Hermie J. M. Harmsen, Jan G. Aarnoudse, Frank Abbas, Paul De Vos, Maria G. Van Pampus
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086355
Abstract: Objective Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. Methods Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg) or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. Results We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it’s LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. Conclusion Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.
Bibliography of J.G. de Casparis
Marijke J. Klokke
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 2003,
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