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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12083 matches for " Marie-Louise Hartoft-Nielsen "
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Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?
Marie-Louise Hartoft-Nielsen,Malene Boas,Sofie Bliddal,?ase Krogh Rasmussen,Katharina Main,Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/342189
Abstract: Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals—endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)—has been shown to cause almost constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal neurodevelopment. This paper focuses on thyroid hormone influence on foetal development in relation to the chemicals suspected of thyroid disrupting properties with possible interactions with maternal thyroid homeostasis. Knowledge of the effects is expected to impact the general debate on the use of these chemicals. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the issue, since human studies are scarce. 1. Introduction Maintaining maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is important for growth and development, in particular neurodevelopment of the foetus. Even subtle changes in thyroid function of the pregnant woman can cause detrimental effects for the foetus [1–5]. In the first trimester, the foetus relies solely on the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) and iodine from the mother. Later in pregnancy and during lactation, maternal thyroid hormones still contribute significantly to foetal thyroid homeostasis [6–8]. Worldwide, both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are frequent among fertile women [9–14]. Prior maternal thyroid diseases as well as iodine and selenium deficiencies are known risk factors for hypothyroidism. Abundant industrial and household use of various chemicals—called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)—expose humans with potential harmful influences on health and hormone regulation. As recently reviewed, several of these EDCs have been found to have thyroid disrupting properties as well [15–17]. Probably each chemical has limited thyroid disruptive effects at environmental exposure doses. However, the combined influence of several chemicals through different pathways of thyroid hormone synthesis and action may have significant impact on both maternal and foetal thyroid function [18, 19] and, thus, a potential to compromise foetal development and maturation. This paper will focus on the influence of thyroid hormones on foetal development in relation to the chemicals suspected to have thyroid disrupting properties. Knowledge on
Adipose tissue arachidonic acid content is associated with the expression of 5-lipoxygenase in atherosclerotic plaques
Nielsen Michael S,Gr?nholdt Marie-Louise M,Vyberg Mogens,Overvad Kim
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-12-7
Abstract: Background The content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue is positively associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, whereas the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue has been reported to be negatively associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. Both arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are substrates for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes and leukotrienes derived from eicosapentaenoic acid are generally much less potent. In this study we hypothesized that a high content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue would reflect a high formation of arachidonic acid derived leukotrienes and a high expression of 5-lipoxygenase in atherosclerotic plaques. Likewise, we hypothesized that a high content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue would reflect a low formation of arachidonic acid derived leukotrienes and a low expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques. Methods In a cross sectional study we included 45 consecutive subjects undergoing femoral thrombendarterectomy. The expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques was assessed by a semi-automated image analysis computer programme after immunohistochemical staining with mono-clonal 5-lipoxygenase antibodies. Leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotriene formation from stimulated femoral artery plaques was quantified using ELISA methods. The fatty acid content of adipose tissue biopsies from the thigh was analyzed using gas chromatography. Associations between variables were assessed by Pearson correlations and were further explored in a multivariable linear regression model adjusting for potential confounders. Results A high content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue was associated with a higher expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques (r = 0.32, p = 0.03), but no significant associations with leukotriene B4 (r = 0.22, p = 0.14) and cysteinyl leukotriene (r = 0.11, p = 0.46) formation was seen. No significant associations were found between the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue and 5-lipoxygenase expression or leukotriene formation in plaque. Conclusions Adipose tissue arachidonic acid contents correlated positively with the expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques. This association might represent a causal link between adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the risk of myocardial infarction but confirmatory studies are needed.
Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions
Marie-Louise H. Hansen,Ditte M?lgaard-Nielsen,Lisbeth B. Knudsen,Niels Keiding
Demographic Research , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001), age (16-39), county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: challenges for the current decade
Newell,Marie-Louise;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001001200010
Abstract: in june 2001 the united nations special assembly on hiv/aids set reduction targets of 20% and 50% for the numbers of children newly infected with hiv by 2005 and 2010 respectively. are these targets achievable? antiretroviral monotherapy during pregnancy, delivery, and the neonatal period can reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission of hiv-1 by two-thirds in non-breastfeeding populations. shorter and simpler regimens of monotherapy have been associated with a reduction of 50% in such transmission among non-breastfeeding populations and of up to 40% in breastfeeding populations. delivery by elective caesarean section is associated with a halving of the risk of mother-to-child transmission. however, breastfeeding poses a substantial additional risk of acquisition of hiv, and if prolonged it more than doubles the overall rate of transmission. rates below 2% are being reported from settings where combination therapy is applied during pregnancy and delivery, delivery is by elective caesarean section, and breastfeeding does not take place. in breastfeeding populations where elective caesarean delivery is not an option but peripartum antiretroviral therapy is used, rates at six weeks are about 10% but can be 25% or more after 18 months of breastfeeding. more widely applicable interventions are being developed, such as cleansing of the birth canal and antiretroviral therapy during the breastfeeding period.
Phonétique et Cadre Commun: propositions pour un cours de FLE
Marie-Louise Parizet
Synergies Espagne , 2008,
Abstract: Pour dédramariser la phonétique en classe de FLE, il convient demener une réflexion sur les raisons d’être de la compétence phonologique etsur son importance pour la communication. En amont, des bases théoriquesthéoriques et méthodologiques doivent être acquises pour une meilleure misesen oeuvres des activités. Celles-ci, ludiques le plus souvent, constituent unappel à l’imagination de l’enseignant, une invitation au plaisir d’enseignerla phonétique.
Company mobility within the EU, fifty years on From a non-issue to a hot topic
Marie-Louise Lennarts
Utrecht Law Review , 2008,
Abstract:
Esquisse du peuplement préhistorique au Yémen
Marie-Louise Inizan
Chroniques Yéménites , 1997,
Abstract: Le Yémen situé à l'extrême sud de l'Arabie est tout proche de l'Afrique orientale, berceau originel de l'humanité. Cette proximité confère donc au Yémen une place privilégiée pour la connaissance du cheminement de l'homme de l'Afrique vers l'Europe et l'Asie, les autres continents ayant été conquis par les seuls Hommes modernes. Puisque il est désormais admis qu' Homo Habilis de la famille des hominidés, a quitté l'Afrique il y a près de deux millions d'années, il reste à explorer les chemins...
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: challenges for the current decade
Newell Marie-Louise
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: In June 2001 the United Nations Special Assembly on HIV/AIDS set reduction targets of 20% and 50% for the numbers of children newly infected with HIV by 2005 and 2010 respectively. Are these targets achievable? Antiretroviral monotherapy during pregnancy, delivery, and the neonatal period can reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 by two-thirds in non-breastfeeding populations. Shorter and simpler regimens of monotherapy have been associated with a reduction of 50% in such transmission among non-breastfeeding populations and of up to 40% in breastfeeding populations. Delivery by elective caesarean section is associated with a halving of the risk of mother-to-child transmission. However, breastfeeding poses a substantial additional risk of acquisition of HIV, and if prolonged it more than doubles the overall rate of transmission. Rates below 2% are being reported from settings where combination therapy is applied during pregnancy and delivery, delivery is by elective caesarean section, and breastfeeding does not take place. In breastfeeding populations where elective caesarean delivery is not an option but peripartum antiretroviral therapy is used, rates at six weeks are about 10% but can be 25% or more after 18 months of breastfeeding. More widely applicable interventions are being developed, such as cleansing of the birth canal and antiretroviral therapy during the breastfeeding period.
A short note on the Stanley-Wilf Conjecture for permutations on multisets
Marie-Louise Bruner
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: The concept of pattern avoidance respectively containment in permutations can be extended to permutations on multisets in a straightforward way. In this note we present a direct proof of the already known fact that the well-known Stanley-Wilf Conjecture, stating that the number of permutations avoiding a given pattern does not grow faster than exponentially, also holds for permutations on multisets.
On restricted permutations on regular multisets
Marie-Louise Bruner
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: The extension of pattern avoidance from ordinary permutations to those on multisets gave birth to several interesting enumerative results. We study permutations on regular multisets, i.e., multisets in which each element occurs the same number of times. For this case, we close a gap in the work of Heubach and Mansour (2006) and complete the study of permutations avoiding a pair of patterns of length three. In all studied cases, closed enumeration formulae are given and well-known sequences appear. We conclude this paper by some remarks on a generalization of the Stanley-Wilf conjecture to permutations on multisets and words.
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