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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2579 matches for " Mariano Sigman "
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Bridging Psychology and Mathematics: Can the Brain Understand the Brain?
Mariano Sigman
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020297
Abstract:
Bridging Psychology and Mathematics: Can the Brain Understand the Brain?
Mariano Sigman
PLOS Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020297
Abstract:
The Spatial and Temporal Construction of Confidence in the Visual Scene
Martin Graziano, Mariano Sigman
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004909
Abstract: Human subjects can report many items of a cluttered field a few hundred milliseconds after stimulus presentation. This memory decays rapidly and after a second only 3 or 4 items can be stored in working memory. Here we compared the dynamics of objective performance with a measure of subjective report and we observed that 1) Objective performance beyond explicit subjective reports (blindsight) was significantly more pronounced within a short temporal interval and within specific locations of the visual field which were robust across sessions 2) High confidence errors (false beliefs) were largely confined to a small spatial window neighboring the cue. The size of this window did not change in time 3) Subjective confidence showed a moderate but consistent decrease with time, independent of all other experimental factors. Our study allowed us to asses quantitatively the temporal and spatial access to an objective response and to subjective reports.
Dynamics of the Central Bottleneck: Dual-Task and Task Uncertainty
Mariano Sigman,Stanislas Dehaene
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040220
Abstract: Why is the human brain fundamentally limited when attempting to execute two tasks at the same time or in close succession? Two classical paradigms, psychological refractory period (PRP) and task switching, have independently approached this issue, making significant advances in our understanding of the architecture of cognition. Yet, there is an apparent contradiction between the conclusions derived from these two paradigms. The PRP paradigm, on the one hand, suggests that the simultaneous execution of two tasks is limited solely by a passive structural bottleneck in which the tasks are executed on a first-come, first-served basis. The task-switching paradigm, on the other hand, argues that switching back and forth between task configurations must be actively controlled by a central executive system (the system controlling voluntary, planned, and flexible action). Here we have explicitly designed an experiment mixing the essential ingredients of both paradigms: task uncertainty and task simultaneity. In addition to a central bottleneck, we obtain evidence for active processes of task setting (planning of the appropriate sequence of actions) and task disengaging (suppression of the plan set for the first task in order to proceed with the next one). Our results clarify the chronometric relations between these central components of dual-task processing, and in particular whether they operate serially or in parallel. On this basis, we propose a hierarchical model of cognitive architecture that provides a synthesis of task-switching and PRP paradigms.
Parsing a Cognitive Task: A Characterization of the Mind's Bottleneck
Mariano Sigman,Stanislas Dehaene
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030037
Abstract: Parsing a mental operation into components, characterizing the parallel or serial nature of this flow, and understanding what each process ultimately contributes to response time are fundamental questions in cognitive neuroscience. Here we show how a simple theoretical model leads to an extended set of predictions concerning the distribution of response time and its alteration by simultaneous performance of another task. The model provides a synthesis of psychological refractory period and random-walk models of response time. It merely assumes that a task consists of three consecutive stages—perception, decision based on noisy integration of evidence, and response—and that the perceptual and motor stages can operate simultaneously with stages of another task, while the central decision process constitutes a bottleneck. We designed a number-comparison task that provided a thorough test of the model by allowing independent variations in number notation, numerical distance, response complexity, and temporal asynchrony relative to an interfering probe task of tone discrimination. The results revealed a parsing of the comparison task in which each variable affects only one stage. Numerical distance affects the integration process, which is the only step that cannot proceed in parallel and has a major contribution to response time variability. The other stages, mapping the numeral to an internal quantity and executing the motor response, can be carried out in parallel with another task. Changing the duration of these processes has no significant effect on the variance.
Dynamics of the Central Bottleneck: Dual-Task and Task Uncertainty
Mariano Sigman ,Stanislas Dehaene
PLOS Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040220
Abstract: Why is the human brain fundamentally limited when attempting to execute two tasks at the same time or in close succession? Two classical paradigms, psychological refractory period (PRP) and task switching, have independently approached this issue, making significant advances in our understanding of the architecture of cognition. Yet, there is an apparent contradiction between the conclusions derived from these two paradigms. The PRP paradigm, on the one hand, suggests that the simultaneous execution of two tasks is limited solely by a passive structural bottleneck in which the tasks are executed on a first-come, first-served basis. The task-switching paradigm, on the other hand, argues that switching back and forth between task configurations must be actively controlled by a central executive system (the system controlling voluntary, planned, and flexible action). Here we have explicitly designed an experiment mixing the essential ingredients of both paradigms: task uncertainty and task simultaneity. In addition to a central bottleneck, we obtain evidence for active processes of task setting (planning of the appropriate sequence of actions) and task disengaging (suppression of the plan set for the first task in order to proceed with the next one). Our results clarify the chronometric relations between these central components of dual-task processing, and in particular whether they operate serially or in parallel. On this basis, we propose a hierarchical model of cognitive architecture that provides a synthesis of task-switching and PRP paradigms.
Parsing a Cognitive Task: A Characterization of the Mind's Bottleneck
Mariano Sigman ,Stanislas Dehaene
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030037
Abstract: Parsing a mental operation into components, characterizing the parallel or serial nature of this flow, and understanding what each process ultimately contributes to response time are fundamental questions in cognitive neuroscience. Here we show how a simple theoretical model leads to an extended set of predictions concerning the distribution of response time and its alteration by simultaneous performance of another task. The model provides a synthesis of psychological refractory period and random-walk models of response time. It merely assumes that a task consists of three consecutive stages—perception, decision based on noisy integration of evidence, and response—and that the perceptual and motor stages can operate simultaneously with stages of another task, while the central decision process constitutes a bottleneck. We designed a number-comparison task that provided a thorough test of the model by allowing independent variations in number notation, numerical distance, response complexity, and temporal asynchrony relative to an interfering probe task of tone discrimination. The results revealed a parsing of the comparison task in which each variable affects only one stage. Numerical distance affects the integration process, which is the only step that cannot proceed in parallel and has a major contribution to response time variability. The other stages, mapping the numeral to an internal quantity and executing the motor response, can be carried out in parallel with another task. Changing the duration of these processes has no significant effect on the variance.
Global Organization of the Lexicon
Mariano Sigman,Guillermo Cecchi
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.022341799
Abstract: The lexicon consists of a set of word meanings and their semantic relationships. A systematic representation of the English lexicon based in psycholinguistic considerations has been put together in the database Wordnet in a long-term collaborative effort1. We present here a quantitative study of the graph structure of Wordnet in order to understand the global organization of the lexicon. We find that semantic links follow power-law, scale-invariant behaviors typical of self-organizing networks. Polysemy, the ambiguity of an individual word, can act as a link in the semantic network, relating the different meanings of a common word. Inclusion of polysemous links has a profound impact in the organization of the semantic graph, converting it into a small world, with clusters of high traffic (hubs) representing abstract concepts. Our results show that polysemy organizes the semantic graph in a compact and categorical representation, and thus may explain the ubiquity of polysemy across languages.
Delays without Mistakes: Response Time and Error Distributions in Dual-Task
Juan Esteban Kamienkowski, Mariano Sigman
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003196
Abstract: Background When two tasks are presented within a short interval, a delay in the execution of the second task has been systematically observed. Psychological theorizing has argued that while sensory and motor operations can proceed in parallel, the coordination between these modules establishes a processing bottleneck. This model predicts that the timing but not the characteristics (duration, precision, variability…) of each processing stage are affected by interference. Thus, a critical test to this hypothesis is to explore whether the qualitiy of the decision is unaffected by a concurrent task. Methodology/Principal Findings In number comparison–as in most decision comparison tasks with a scalar measure of the evidence–the extent to which two stimuli can be discriminated is determined by their ratio, referred as the Weber fraction. We investigated performance in a rapid succession of two non-symbolic comparison tasks (number comparison and tone discrimination) in which error rates in both tasks could be manipulated parametrically from chance to almost perfect. We observed that dual-task interference has a massive effect on RT but does not affect the error rates, or the distribution of errors as a function of the evidence. Conclusions/Significance Our results imply that while the decision process itself is delayed during multiple task execution, its workings are unaffected by task interference, providing strong evidence in favor of a sequential model of task execution.
LT^2C^2: A language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity
Sergio Romano,Mariano Sigman,Santiago Figueira
Papers in Physics , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, we present a theoretical effort to connect the theory of program size to psychology by implementing a concrete language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity (LT^2C^2) satisfying the following requirements: 1) to be simple enough so that the complexity of any given finite binary sequence can be computed, 2) to be based on tangible operations of human reasoning (printing, repeating,. . . ), 3) to be sufficiently powerful to generate all possible sequences but not too powerful as to identify regularities which would be invisible to humans. We first formalize LT^2C^2, giving its syntax and semantics, and defining an adequate notion of program size. Our setting leads to a Kolmogorov complexity function relative to LT^2C^2 which is computable in polynomial time, and it also induces a prediction algorithm in the spirit of Solomonoff’s inductive inference theory. We then prove the efficacy of this language by investigating regularities in strings produced by participants attempting to generate random strings. Participants had a profound understanding of randomness and hence avoided typical misconceptions such as exaggerating the number of alternations. We reasoned that remaining regularities would express the algorithmic nature of human thoughts, revealed in the form of specific patterns. Kolmogorov complexity relative to LT^2C^2 passed three expected tests examined here: 1) human sequences were less complex than control PRNG sequences, 2) human sequences were not stationary showing decreasing values of complexity resulting from fatigue 3) each individual showed traces of algorithmic stability since fitting of partial data was more effective to predict subsequent data than average fits. This work extends on previous efforts to combine notions of Kolmogorov complexity theory and algorithmic information theory to psychology, by explicitly proposing a language which may describe the patterns of human thoughts.Received: 12 December 2012, Accepted: 3 February 2013; Edited by: G. Mindlin; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.050001Cite as: S Romano, M Sigman, S Figueira, Papers in Physics 5, 050001 (2013)
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