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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 237996 matches for " Marianne C. James "
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TGF-β Suppresses β-Catenin-Dependent Tolerogenic Activation Program in Dendritic Cells
Bryan Vander Lugt,Zachary T. Beck,Robert C. Fuhlbrigge,Nir Hacohen,James J. Campbell,Marianne Boes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020099
Abstract: The mechanisms that underlie the critical dendritic cell (DC) function in maintainance of peripheral immune tolerance are incompletely understood, although the β-catenin signaling pathway is critical for this role. The molecular details by which β-catenin signaling is regulated in DCs are unknown. Mechanical disruption of murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) clusters activates DCs while maintaining their tolerogenic potential and this activation is associated with β-catenin signaling, providing a useful model with which to explore tolerance-associated β-catenin signaling in DCs. In this report, we demonstrate novel molecular features of the signaling events that control DC activation in response to mechanical stimulation. Non-canonical β-catenin signaling is an essential component of this tolerogenic activation and is modulated by adhesion molecules, including integrins. This unique β-catenin-dependent signaling pathway is constitutively active at low levels, suggesting that mechanical stimulation is not necessarily required for induction of this unique activation program. We additionally find that the immunomodulatory cytokine TGF-β antagonizes β-catenin in DCs, thereby selectively suppressing signaling associated with tolerogenic DC activation while having no impact on LPS-induced, β-catenin-independent immunogenic activation. These findings provide new molecular insight into the regulation of a critical signaling pathway for DC function in peripheral immune tolerance.
Panel Based MALDI-TOF Tumour Profiling Is a Sensitive Method for Detecting Mutations in Clinical Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumour
James L. Sherwood, Susanne Müller, Maria C. M. Orr, Marianne J. Ratcliffe, Jill Walker
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100566
Abstract: Background Analysis of tumour samples for mutations is becoming increasingly important in driving personalised therapy in cancer. As more targeted therapies are developed, options to survey mutations in multiple genes in a single tumour sample will become ever more attractive and are expected to become the mainstay of molecular diagnosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the future. Materials and Methods 238 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumour samples were analysed using a custom panel of 82 mutation assays across 14 oncogenes including KRAS and EGFR using Sequenom iPlex Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). We compared the data generated for KRAS mutations to those detected by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) based DxS TheraScreen K-RAS Mutation Kit. Results The ARMS detected mutations in 46/238 tumour samples. For samples with mutations detected by both approaches, 99.1% overall agreement was observed. The MALDI-TOF method detected an additional 6 samples as KRAS mutation positive and also provided data on concomitant mutations including PIK3CA and TP53. Conclusions The Sequenom MALDI-TOF method provides a sensitive panel-based approach which makes efficient use of patient diagnostic samples. This technology could provide an opportunity to deliver comprehensive screening of relevant biomarkers to the clinic earlier in disease management, without the need for repeat biopsy and allow for additional downstream analysis in NSCLC where available tissue may have been exhausted.
The Heterogeneity, Distribution, and Environmental Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, the Agent of Lyme Borreliosis, in Scotland
Marianne C. James,Lucy Gilbert,Alan S. Bowman,Ken J. Forbes
Frontiers in Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00129
Abstract: Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed intra-genospecies co-infections, suggesting tick co-feeding, feeding on multiple hosts, or multiple infections in hosts. B. garinii (hosted by birds) was considerably more genetically diverse than B. afzelii (hosted by small mammals), as predicted since there are more species of birds than small mammals and birds can import strains from mainland Europe. Higher proportions of samples contained B. garinii and B. valaisiana in the west, while B. afzelii and B. garinii were significantly more associated with mixed/deciduous than with coniferous woodlands. This may relate to the abundance of transmission hosts in different regions and habitats. These data on the genetic heterogeneity within and between Borrelia genospecies are a first step to understand pathogen spread and could help explain the distribution of patient symptoms, which may aid local diagnosis. Understanding the environmental associations of the pathogens is critical for rational policy making for disease risk mitigation and land management.
Sustainable Tourism and Management for Coral Reefs: Preserving Diversity and Plurality in a Time of Climate Change  [PDF]
M. James C. Crabbe
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.32031
Abstract: Coral reefs throughout the world are under severe challenges from a variety of anthropogenic and environmental factors. In a period of climate change, where mobility and tourism are under threat, it is useful to demonstrate the value of eco- and research-tourism to individuals and to cultures, and how diversity and pluralism in sustainable environments may be preserved. Here we identify the ways in which organisations use research tourism to benefit ecosystem diversity and conservation, show how an Earthwatch project has produced scientific information on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica, and how a capacity-building programme in Belize developed specific action plans for ecotourism. We discuss how implementation of those plans can help research tourism and preserve ecosystem diversity in times of climate change.
The Pricing for Interest Sensitive Products of Life Insurance Firms  [PDF]
James C. Hao
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.23025
Abstract: The major purpose of this paper is to construct interest rate risk models for interest sensitive products issued by life insurance firms in Taiwan. With interest declines in late 1990s, single paid interest sensitive annuity takes up about 20% of new policy premiums in Taiwan; this implies its risk and profitability become critical to insurers’ financial health. The paper constructs the Black-Derman-Toy model combining with optional-adjusted spread analysis model to price the spread on asset required to yield to make such products break even, with further extension to measure the impact of interest shock on asset liability management. We choose two different crediting strategy products to illustrate the option value of the insurance firms- the option to reset rates based on the path of interest rates and the expenses charges as well as the option of policyholders-the option to surrender policy if not satisfied with crediting rate. With our implemenTable models, insurance firm will have capacity to quantify its risk exposure and source of profitability as well as to seek an optimal strategy balancing sale volume and aggressiveness of crediting policy.
The Influence of Extreme Climate Events on Models of Coral Colony Recruitment and Survival in the Caribbean  [PDF]
Michael James C. Crabbe
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.11003
Abstract: Knowledge of coral recruitment patterns helps us understand how reefs react following major disturbances and provides us with an early warning system for predicting future reef health problems. We have reconstructed and interpreted historical and modern-day recruitment patterns, using growth modeling, in order to understand how hurricanes, storms and bleaching events have influenced coral recruitment in the Caribbean. The results indicate that regional hurricane events negatively impact coral recruitment patterns in the Caribbean, from the south in Tobago to more northerly areas in Belize and Jamaica. However, despite multiple large-scale disturbances, corals are still recruiting to marginal reef systems, and to the Mesoamerican Barrier reef off the coast of Belize. While recruitment and initial growth since the Caribbean-wide bleaching event of 2005 has been successful for Colpophylia natans at the sites studied in North Jamaica, medium and large sized colonies of this species have decreased in numbers since the bleaching event at most sites, except where the rugosity is highest, at Dairy Bull reef.
Coral Reef Populations in the Caribbean: Is There a Case for Better Protection against Climate Change?  [PDF]
Michael James C. Crabbe
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.22010
Abstract: Knowledge of factors that are important in coral reef growth help us to understand how reef ecosystems react following major environmental disturbances due to climate change and other anthropogenic effects. This study shows that despite a range of anthropogenic stressors, corals on the fringing reefs south of Kingston harbour, as well as corals on fringing reefs on the north coast of Jamaica near Discovery Bay can survive and grow. Skewness values for Sidastrea siderea and Porites astreoides were positive (0.85 - 1.64) for all sites, implying more small colonies than large colonies. Coral growth rates are part of a demographic approach to monitoring coral reef health in times of climate change, and linear extension rates (mm.yr-1) of Acropora palmata branching corals at Dairy Bull, Rio Bueno, and Pear Tree Bottom on the north coast of Jamaica were c. 50 - 90 mm.year-1 from 2005-2012. The range of small-scale rugosities at the Port Royal cay sites studied was lower than that at the Discovery Bay sites; for example Rio Bueno was 1.05 ± 0.15 and Dairy Bull the most rugose at 2.3 ± 0.16. Diary Bull reef has for several years been the fringing reef with the most coral cover, with a benthic community similar to that of the 1970s. We discuss whether Jamaica can learn from methods used in other Caribbean countries to better protect its coral reefs against climate change. Establishing and maintaining fully-protected marine parks in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean is one tool to help the future of the fishing industry in developing countries. Developing MPAs as part of an overall climate change policy for a country may be the best way of integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.
Leadership Ideas—A Study with Prospective Nursing Leaders  [PDF]
Marianne Frilund
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.55054
Abstract: Introduction: The study is based on P. Kostenbaums theory about leadership as greatness. His theory distinguishes four interdependent leadership “orientations”: ethics, vision, courage and reality. People with qualities have developed greatness and wisdom in their mind, as well as competence to act ethically. The leadership research has shaped a leadership figure that can be described as a picture of a hero. Aim: The aim of this paper is to find out the idea of leadership based on earlier research and analyse their relevancy for nursing-management. Method: The study is a qualitative study based on earlier studies with focus on the basic idea of leadership with relevancy for nursing management and leadership. Sex students, from a master degree program in Finland, collected data based on earlier research. Findings and Interpretation: The ideas of leadership consist of three basic ideas: leadership as greatness, leadership as interactions and relations, and leadership based on the idea of shared leadership. Discussion: The prospects for leading others are to master the balance between the degree of freedom and control, to build trust, and to provide directives and control until confidence. To lead without “meeting” makes that the employers never give desired results. The purposes of the ideas of leadership are to create trust, confidence and understanding of where the other person is located. Being seen and being confirmed is fundamental to pace an individual and create opportunities to lead within nursing care.
Mapping Trajectories of Attention to Drug Related Issues in Estonian Main Dailies  [PDF]
Marianne Paimre
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.32005
Abstract: Illicit drugs have been a burning social issue in Estonia over the last fifteen years. Estonia has taken the lead in Europe with regard to drug-related deaths and prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users. Experimental drug use among Estonian students is more widespread than the European average. It is important to study press coverage, because according to agenda setting theory, the media plays an important role in influencing the salience of social issues on the public agenda. The aim of this article is to map fluctuations in attention received from Estonian two major dailies to different drug related issues during the last 25 years. The author focuses on issues highlighted in national and international drug reports such as drug addiction, drug related crime, spread of HIV among addicts, drug-induced deaths, drug problem in schools etc. Content analysis of almost 1000 press articles reflecting drug problems in Estonia was carried out from 1990 to 2014. The study revealed that since 1995, attention received from the major newspapers to drug related crime has been high and quite stable compared to other drug issues. Press interest with regard to problem drug use and HIV was notice a bleat the turn of the millennium and in the beginning of the new century, but almost lost by 2014. More intense periods of coverage were triggered by specific events. Only a few articles have reflected drug induced death despite the fact that Estonia is the undisputed leader in the EU regarding this indicator. This reflects that the coverage was not been in line with the drug situation in Estonia. It seems that the attention of the press depends rather on newsworthiness of the issue and the agenda setting processes.
Efeitos de autoanticorpos antilipoproteína lipase, antilipoproteína de baixa densidade e antilipoproteína de baixa densidade oxidada sobre o metabolismo lipídico e aterosclerose no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico
Fesmire, James;Wolfson-Reichlin, Marianne;Reichlin, Morris;
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0482-50042010000500007
Abstract: introduction: premature development of atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus has been widely reported. anti-lipoprotein lipase antibody may be one cause contributing to this disorder. objective: to assess the extent of coronary risk due to autoimmune antibodies in terms of carotid plaque in lupus patients. patients and methods: we compared 114 documented lupus patients with 111 normal controls matched for sex and age. anti-lipoprotein lipase (a-lpl), anti-oxidized low density lipoprotein (a-oxldl), and anti-low density lipoprotein (a-ldl) were measured by enzme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (ldl-trig) and high density lipoprotein-triglyceride (hdl-trig) were also measured. plaque was measured by bilateral carotid ultrasound. results: 45.6% of patients tested positive for a-lpl, and 34.4% for a-oxldl. 44% of normal controls tested positive for a-lpl, and 20% for a-oxldl. risk increased sharply in subgroups with increased antibody levels. patients with a-lpl and a-oxldl > 0.40 (n = 12) showed coronary risk correlations of: a-lpl x ldl-trig = 0.7008, p = 0.0111; bilateral ultrasound vs total cholesterol = 0.62205, p = 0.0308; ldl-trig vs myocardial infarction (mi) = 0.76562, p = 0.0037; total triglycerides vs mi = 0.78191, p = 0.0027); ldl-trig/ldl-cholesterol vs mi = 0.80493, p = 0.0016; a-oxldl vs usbl = 0.71930, p = 0.0084. correlations of sledai with risk variables were highly significant only in subgroups of elevated antibody levels (sledai x a-oxldl = 0.70366, p = 0.0107). conclusion: a-lpl initiates the development of ldl mutations, followed by antibody production, plaque formation and coronary risk in some sle patients.
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