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Introduction: The ureteral ostia may not be easily identified in urological endoscopic procedures, leading to an incomplete diagnosis of urinary tract diseases or a predisposition to iatrogenic lesions. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the anatomical distribution of ureteralostia in normal bladders and those with thickened walls. Materials and Methods: We dissected 30 vesical-prostate blocks from human cadavers and identified the ostia of the bladder trigone. A computerized morphometric analysis was performed to measure the thickness of the detrusor muscle, the distances between the ureteral ostia themselves and the distances between each ureteral ostium (left—LUO and right—RUO) and the internal urethral ostium (IUO). The angle formed between the IUO and LUO/RUO was also recorded as well as the volume of the prostates. Results: Fifteen bladders with a non-thickened detrusor (<5 mm) as well as 15 bladders with muscular thickening (>6 mm) were identified. The average prostatic volume of the dissected blocks was 23.7 cm3. The distance between ureteral ostia, the distance from IUO to LUO, the distance from IUO to RUO and the angle formed between IUO and LUO/RUO in normal and thickened bladder were, respectively, 1.9 cm/2.2 cm (p = 0.09), 1.6 cm/1.6 cm (p = 0.82), 1.6 cm/1.7 cm (p = 0.79) and 77/91 (p = 0.17). Conclusions: Our study shows that there is no significant difference in the position of bladder ostia in healthy and thickened bladders. We believe that our findings may facilitate locating the ureteral orifices in situations where endoscopic identification is difficult.
The aim of this work was to
isolate and identify the yeasts prevalent in fresh grapes cultivated in the “São
Francisco Valley” region (Brazil), as well as evaluating the cell growth of
these indigenous yeasts during the fermentation of grape musts and their
contribution to the improvement of wine aroma. The Chenin Blanc grape must
fermented by H. opuntiae presented
higher acceptance means at the three points analyzed (6.74, 6.78 and 7.30) and in the fermentation carried out by the yeasts H. opuntiae and S. cerevisiae, the highest mean acceptance (7.22) was observed
after 120 hours, with no statistical difference from the sample fermented by H. opuntiae alone. Since these samples
that showed higher acceptance means also receiving higher scores for purchasing
intention, corresponding to the concepts of “definitely would buy” and “probably
would buy”. The present study suggests that the
fermentations of grape musts carried out by the yeast H. opuntiae and mixed cultures of H. opuntiae and Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, positively influenced the sensory qualities of the wines and
showed greater potential to increase the aroma of the musts and to develop
specific wine styles.
The accumulation of trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,1]-α-D-glucopyranoside), a sugar with osmoprotectant properties, is very common in microorganisms, invertebrates and in resurrection plants. However, in the majority of higher plants, it is found in trace amounts. Trehalose is synthesized from the UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate in a two-step process with two enzymes, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase or TPS (EC 220.127.116.11 and EC 18.104.22.168) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase or TPP (EC 22.214.171.124). The trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and its product of the trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) are probable signaling molecules in the carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to enhancing the plants tolerance to water stress. Water scarcity is one of the most important factors that influence productivity in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and it activates a cascade of metabolic events and necessary morphologic changes for the survival of the plant under stress. Here we show the in silico expression study of TPS in different libraries from the SUCEST project. Our results showed that the TPS genes are present in all tissues and that they are divided into two subfamilies (class I and II). It is shown that STPS1 belongs to the class I, therefore, it does not have an active phosphatase (TPP) domain, whereas, the STPS2 has an active TPP domain (class II) determined by the presence of phosphatase boxes. Expression analyses based on the semi-quantitative method of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) show that the STPS1 gene is up-regulated in the tolerant cultivar under stress and down-regulated in susceptible plants. The STPS2 gene does not show considerable variations in the expression levels under the same treatments. The discovery of active genes such as STPS1 and STPS2 in plants under water stress, contributes for the concerning about the cascade of responses in plants under water deficit and points out to target genes for plant breeding.