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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 136220 matches for " Mariam T. Al Hattab "
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Sequential Remediation Processes for a Low Level Pesticide Wastewater  [PDF]
Mariam T. Al hattab, Abdel E. Ghaly
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.32019
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a remediation system for the treatment of a low-level pesticide wastewater that uses available onfarm organic matter as an absorption media, is capable of reducing the concentration of the pesticide to a safe level and is economically viable for implementation by farmers. The absorption capacity of chopped hay and soybean to the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch conditions and the effectiveness of the composting process in depredating captan in contaminated organic materials was evaluated. The results showed that both hay and soybean plant residues were very effective in absorbing 99.2% and 98.5% of captan form the wastewater after 4 hours, respectively. Because of its availability, hay can be used in an onfarm pesticide immobilization system that consists of shallow reinforced concrete pit (filled with hay) with steel bars across the top for machinery to roll onto and be washed. The wastewater can be retained for 24 hours which is a sufficient time for hay to absorb the captan. The contaminated hay can then be composted. The addition of used cooking oil raised the temperature of the composting mixture to 63?C. Small reductions in moisture content (from 60% to 58.9 %) and C:N ratio (from 30:1 to 28:1) were observed while reductions of 18.92%, 15.56% and 4.8% in the volatile solids, total carbon total Kjeldahl nitrogen were achieved after 10 d of composting, respectively. About 92.4% of the captan was degraded in the first 4 days of composting. Most of captan (92.4%) was degraded during the mesophilic stage (first 3 days). The degradation rate constant for the mesophilic stage (0.724 d-1) was 2.74 times the degradation rate constant for the thermophilic stage (0.264 d-1). An onfarm windrow composting process would be very effective in degrading captan contaminated hay. The captan contaminated hay could be mixed with equal amount poultry manure or dairy manure to provide the required bioavailable carbon and nutrients for the composting process. Some used cooking oil could also be added to maintain higher temperature within the compost matrix. The windrows should be mixed on a daily basis to provide sufficient oxygen for the composting microorganisms.
Disposal and Treatment Methods for Pesticide Containing Wastewaters: Critical Review and Comparative Analysis  [PDF]
Mariam T. Al Hattab, Abdel E. Ghaly
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35054
Abstract: Pesticides provide the primary means for controlling organisms that compete with man for food and fibre or cause injury to man, livestock and crops. They played a vital role in the economic production of wide ranges of vegetable, fruit, cereal, forage, fibre and oil crops which now constitute a large part of successful agricultural industry in many countries. After application to the target areas, pesticide residues are removed from applicators by rinsing with water which results in the formation of a toxic wastewater that represents a disposal problem for many farmers. Pesticides can adversely affect people, pets, livestock and wildlife in addition to the pests they are intended to destroy. The phenomenon of biomagnification of some pesticides has resulted in reproductive failure of some fish species and egg shell thinning of birds such as peregrine falcons, sparrow hawk and eagle owls. Pesticide toxicity to humans include skin and eye irritation and skin cancer. Therefore, care must be exercised in the application, disposal and treatment of pesticides. Currently, disposal of pesticide wastewater is carried out by: 1) land cultivation, 2) dumping in soil pits, plastic pits and concrete pits or on land and in extreme cases in streams near the rinsing operation, 3) use of evaporation beds and 4) land filling. These methods of disposal are unsafe as the surface run off will reach streams, rivers and lakes and the infiltration of the wastewater into the local soil will eventually reach ground water. The treatment methods currently used for pesticide wastewater include: 1) incineration (incinerators and open burning), 2) chemical treatments (O3/UV, hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation and KPEG), 3) physical treatments (inorganic, organic absorbents and activated carbon) and 4) biological treatments (composting, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation). Therefore, the choice of safe, on farm disposal techniques for agricultural pesticides is very important. A comparative analysis was performed on 18 methods of pesticide disposal/treatment using six criteria: containment, detoxification ability, cost, time, suitability for on farm use, size and evaporation efficiency. The results indicated that of the 18 methods evaluated, 9 scored above 80/100 and can be used on farm. They were organic absorbents (97), composting (94), bioaugmentation (92), inorganic absorbents (90), Fenton oxidation (86), O3/UV (83), activated carbon (82), hydrolysis (82), and land cultivation (80). The other methods are not suitable for on farm use as they suffered from containment problems, high
Evolution of Generalized Space Curve as a Function of Its Local Geometry  [PDF]
Nassar H. Abdel-All, Samah G. Mohamed, Mariam T. Al-Dossary
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515230

Kinematics of moving generalized curves in a n-dimensional Euclidean space is formulated in terms of intrinsic geometries. The evolution equations of the orthonormal frame and higher curvatures are obtained. The integrability conditions for the evolutions are given. Finally, applications in R2 are given and plotted.

Photo-Degradation of Reactive Yellow 14 Dye (A Textile Dye) Employing ZnO as Photocatalyst  [PDF]
Luma M. Ahmed, Fatima T. Tawfeeq, Mariam H. Abed Al-Ameer, Khayal Abed Al-Hussein, Afrah R. Athaab
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.411004
Abstract: In this paper, the reactive yellow 14 dye solution was removed from aqueous solution in the presence of commercial ZnO (mean crystallite size is 44.116 nm) under the UV A light. The decolourization of dye process was obeyed to pseudo-first orderkinetics. The optimum conditions of decolourization for this dye such as: initial dye concentration 50 mg/L, best dose of ZnO 350 mg/100mL and initial pH of aqueous solution of dye 6.75 were studied. Activation energies for dye were found to be 27.244 kJmol-1. The photoreaction process was observed to be endothermic reaction and less randomness.
Changes in growth variables and potassium content in leaves of Black Barley in response to NaCl
Abu-Al-Basal, Mariam A.;Yasseen, Bassam T.;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202009000400002
Abstract: much attention is being focused on the black barley (hordeum distichum l.) as a local cultivar offering good model for a cereal crop has traits of resistance to drought and salinity during vegetative growth stages. although black was sensitive to salt stress during germination, it developed gradual tolerance with age and proved very tolerant during growth and development stages. the data of study clearly revealed how this cultivar was superior over arivat (hordeum vulgare l.) in many physiological aspects such as leaf growth variables (i.e. rate and duration) and processes (i.e. cell division), tiller production and potassium content. black barley had more tillers, faster rate and longer duration of growth processes which was accompanied with potassium accumulation, as sodium chloride concentration increased in the growth medium. thus, the ability of black cultivar to accumulate k+ could have promoted growth variables (i.e. faster rate and longer duration of growth processes). arivat, on the other hand, might have suffered from k+ deficiency; which could explain the adverse effect of salt stress on leaf growth variables and processes. moreover, the relative water content (rwc) and proline can clearly distinguish the two cultivars; rwc was higher and proline concentration was lower in leaves of black as compared with arivat. therefore, black barley proved efficient in maintaining growth, ion homeostasis, and might sacrifice less in growth under osmotic stress conditions. the possible mechanism of the effect of sodium chloride on potassium accumulation in black barley is discussed.
Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Goursat's Problems  [PDF]
Mariam A. Al-Mazmumy
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.28134
Abstract: In this paper, Goursat’s problems for: linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations of second-order, systems of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and fourth-order linear hyperbolic equations in which the attached conditions are given on the characteristics curves are transformed in such a manner that the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) can be applied. Some examples with closed-form solutions are studied in detail to further illustrate the proposed technique, and the results obtained indicate this approach is indeed practical and efficient.
Restarted Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Volterra’s Population Model  [PDF]
Mariam Al-Mazmumy, Safa Otyuan Almuhalbedi
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2017.72016
Abstract: In this paper, we used an efficient algorithm to obtain an analytic approximation for Volterras model for population growth of a species within a closed system, called the Restarted Adomian decomposition method (RADM) to solve the model. The numerical results illustrate that RADM has the good accuracy.
Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: An Overview  [PDF]
Raidan Ba-Hattab, Manar Al-Jamie, Haya Aldreib, Lujain Alessa, Mohammad Alonazi
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2016.612033
Abstract: Background: Calcium hydroxide has been used in dentistry since several decades. It has been used in a number of applications in the field of endodontics such as root resorption, intracanal medicament, and root canal sealers. Although this material exhibits several advantages, it also has some limitations. Objectives: To review the role of calcium hydroxide in the field of endodontics, focusing on its mechanism of action, antimicrobial effects, different applications, cytotoxicity or biocompatibility, and its removal from the root canals. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was done using different databases. Out of 2,664 articles, only 33 articles have been selected to be included in this review because they are directly related to the topic and matched the inclusion criteria of this review: “Language: English” and “Year: 2000-2016”. Results: The antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide is controversial. Although some studies supported the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide against some bacteria others reported its limitation against fungal infection. Calcium hydroxide can be used effectively as intracanal medicament, root canal sealer, in weeping canals, for perforation management and root resorption. Conclusions: Despite the limitation of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide, it is used effectively in a number of treatment modalities in endodontics. Due to its biological and therapeutical properties, calcium hydroxide is the material of choice for all pulp therapy. However, when using calcium hydroxide as a dressing material in root canal treatment caution should be taken to prevent the overextension of the paste beyond the tooth apex and avoid the harmful side effects.
Synthesis with Nitriles: Synthesis of Some New Mercaptopyridazine, Mercaptopyridazino[1,6-a]quinazoline and Thiophene Derivatives
Mariam A. Al-Sheikh
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13112750
Abstract: 2-(1-(4-Bromophenyl)-2-thiocyanatoethylidene)malononitrile (3) undergoes azo coupling with diazotized aromatic amines to afford arylhydrazone derivatives, which are readily cyclized to afford the corresponding 3(2H)-pyridazinimine derivatives upon reflux in aqueous NaOH. Under similar condition an o-cyanoarylhydrazone derivative was cyclized into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-imine, which in turn was easily transformed into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-one on reflux in ethanolic/HCl. Compound 3 afforded substituted 5-acetylthiophene derivatives upon reflux in AcOH/HCl mixtures.
Situation of the Technical and Financial Assistance According to Farms Opinions in Some Mountainous Regions of Tlemcen Province (Algeria)  [PDF]
Mourad Hattab, Abdelaziz Gaouar
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.75031
Abstract: The technical and financial assistance plays a fundamental role in agriculture in order to maintain its durability especially in disadvantaged regions. For this purpose, the present work aims to evaluate the technical and financial assistance according to the opinions of farms in some mountainous areas belonging to the mountains of Tlemcen wihch are situated in the north-western Algeria. The results obtained showed that to improve the relation between bank and farms, public financial institutions should review the conditions for bank credits granting according to sociological particularity of the Algerian population who is very attached to the instructions of Islam religion which prohibits interest rates generated by bank credits. In addition, strengthening these mountainous areas by qualified technical personnel is a necessary operation to improving the knowledge and the know-how of farmers which are very insufficient in these areas.
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