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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 81174 matches for " Maria Rosa Ciardi "
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Early Atherosclerosis in HIV Infected Subjects on Suppressive Antiretroviral Treatment: Role of Osteoprotegerin
Alessandra D’Abramo,Claudia D’Agostino,Alessandra Oliva,Marco Iannetta,Gabriella D’Ettorre,Francesco Vullo,Massimo Mancone,Maria Rosa Ciardi,Claudio Maria Mastroianni,Vincenzo Vullo
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/737083
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is increased in HIV-infected patients. Cytokines such as osteoprotegerin are implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of osteoprotegerin in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in HIV infected subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment. We enrolled 76 patients; 35 HIV infected men on suppressive Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy with Framingham score <10%; 21 HIV negative individuals matched for age, gender, and Framingham score, and 20 subjects with Framingham score >10% as control groups. HIV positive subjects underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and heart multidetector computed tomography, whereas in HIV negative subjects, tomography was only performed in case of any abnormalities either in echocardiography or electrocardiography. In HIV positive patients, computed tomography showed stenosis in 51.4% of the subjects. Osteoprotegerin plasma levels were higher in HIV-infected patients than those in healthy controls but lower than in HIV negative subjects with Framingham score >10%. Higher osteoprotegerin plasma levels were found in HIV positive patients with grade I stenosis than in patients with grade II/III stenosis. In conclusion, in HIV infected subjects with Framingham score <10%, osteoprotegerin plasma concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis, in particular at the early stage of the process. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an emerging and significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients [1]. HIV itself and antiretroviral drugs may contribute to the increased risk of CVD. In addition to traditional risk factors (age, smoking, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), chronic viral infection, immune activation, and inflammation play a central role in vascular damage and endothelial dysfunction [2]. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 are associated with development and progression of atherosclerosis [3–7]; furthermore, new soluble markers including osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to be involved in this process. The OPG/RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB)/RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand), member of TNF superfamily, is a key regulatory system in bone remodelling by regulating development and activation of osteoclasts [8–11]. Recent studies showed the implication of the OPG/RANKL system in vascular disease, especially in vascular calcification, atherosclerosis and plaque formation [12–15]. There are few data about the relationship between OPG and cardiovascular disease in HIV
Can Purified Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Act Blood Pressure Levels in Untreated Normal-High Blood Pressure Subjects with Hypertriglyceridemia?  [PDF]
Maria Leonarda De Rosa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.32031
Abstract: Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least a part of this protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega-6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasoconstrictor rather than vasodilator and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, angiotensin II formation. We retrospectively evaluated the long-term effect of a omega-3 PUFAs supplementation on the blood pressure level of 91 hypertriglyceridemic subjects with untreated normal-high blood pressure that were prescribed a 3 grams omega-3 PUFAs supplementation in order to improve their plasma lipid pattern. After 24 months of treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) meanly decreased by 2.6 +/- 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 1.4 +/- 3.1 mmHg (p < 0.001), while basal heart rate decreased by 4.1 +/- 4.6 bpm (p < 0.001). Both SBP and DBP reduction were significantly related to the baseline SBP (p < 0.001) and DBP (p < 0.001), respectively. Diastolic blood pressure change was also inversely related to the patient’s age (p = 0.004). No significant difference was perceived in the metabolic syndrome subgroup. In our retrospective study, highly purified omega-3 PUFAs long-term supplementation is associated with a significant reduction in SBP, DBP, and basal heart rate in hypertriglyceridemic patients with normal-high blood pressure. The main determinants of the omega-3 PUFAs anti-hypertensive effect appear to be the basal blood pressure level and age. Future research will clarify if omega-3 PUFAs supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.
Peri-implantitis and periodontitis: Use of bacteriological test in dental practice  [PDF]
Francesco Carinci, Rosa Maria Gaudio
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2013.13010
Abstract: Peri-implantitis has been defined as an inflamematory condition involving dental implants, surrounding mucosa and bone, which lose supporting bone. Although high success rates for endosseous implants have been reported, failures occur, and some implants are lost or removed. At least 10% of the failures have been suggested to be the result of peri-implantitis. One of the major causes of the peri-implantitis is the bacterial colonization of implant surfaces but additional risk factors such as periodontitis, poor oral hygiene, tobacco consumption, prepost operative therapies and genetic susceptibility should be considered. In the present study a real-time PCR bases assay was designed to detect and quantify red complex species, then used to investigate 307 periodontal pocket samples from 127 periodontitis patients and 180 controls. Results demonstrated a significant higher prevalence of red complex species and increased amount of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticolain periodontal pocket of periodontitis. Since a higher risk of peri-implantitis occurs in periodontally affected patients, detection and treatment of bacteria is a fundamental objective to ensure dental implant survival.
A longitudinal study in atypical Cri-du chat profile: A single case report  [PDF]
Maria Rosa Pizzamiglio, Cristino Volpe, Laura Piccardi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22027
Abstract:

Background: Cri-du-Chat Syndrome (CdCS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a severe mental delay, minimal verbal abilities and severe learning difficulties. Methods: Here, we report two neuropsychological assessments of an Italian girl (FS) with CdCS who was affected by a moderate mental delay. The first assessment was made at 2.3 years and second at 6.5 years. Results: Her cognitive profile was characterized by a discrepancy between social-communicative and visual-motor skills. Specifically, her linguistic skills were better than her ability to copy a drawing or play with a set of building blocks. FS showed good lexical competence in both comprehension and production. Differently, her grammatical skills (i.e. comprehension and production) were somewhat defective. Conclusion: The FS’s case, due to her moderate mental delay and her preserved linguistic skills, allowed investigating some aspects of this syndrome never explored before.

Influence of Age and Gender in Acquiring Social Skills in Portuguese Preschool Education  [PDF]
Rosa Maria Silva Gomes, Anabela Sousa Pereira
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.52015
Abstract:

The specificity of educational contexts as mediators of social development through positive interactions is critical to children’s involvement in the kindergarten and therefore for their holistic development. The qualities of teacher-child interactions enhance the child’s self-esteem and autonomy, promoting peer acceptance and providing a successful learning experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the characteristic of gender and age are related to the acquisition of social skills of children attending kindergarten in a portuguese-speaking environment. The sample is composed of 581 children, age from 2 to 7 years old, who attended preschool education on average 18 months ago. Social Skills subscale (EAS) and Behavior Problems (EPC) was applied to the “Behavioral Scale for Preschool-PKBSpt” (Gomes & Pereira, 2012), Portuguese version of PKBS-2 (Merrell, 2002), Likert-type, four response levels, which seeks to assess the social and emotional skills, and behavior problems in early childhood, with the participation of educators. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 17.0 for Windows. The main results show that there are gender differences in the level of social skills. The girls reveal behaviors based on Social Cooperation and Social Interaction. The boys show Attention Problems/Overactive and Antisocial Behavior/Aggressive. Older children have the highest average level Social Cooperation and Social Independence. In the dimensions of behavior problems, the youngest children (3 and 4 years) had higher mean values, either in the factor Attention Problem/Overactive or the Antisocial/Aggressive. Older children (6 years old) had statistically significant differences in the problems of the type Social Withdrawal and Anxiety-Somatic problems. The child’s gender and age variables are important factors and should be included in educational practices, taking into account the development of social skills of children attending in preschool. Promoting articulated and differentiated development can prevent maladaptive behaviors in young adults. Finally thoughts are given on the implications of this study in the level of children’s involvement within their educational contexts.

An Alternative Manifold for Cosmology Using Seifert Fibered and Hyperbolic Spaces  [PDF]
Maria E. Mejía, Reinaldo R. Rosa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.56096
Abstract:

We propose a model with 3-dimensional spatial sections, constructed from hyperbolic cusp space glued to Seifert manifolds which are in this case homology spheres. The topological part of this research is based on Thurston’s conjecture which states that any 3-dimensional manifold has a canonical decomposition into parts, each of which has a particular geometric structure. In our case, each part is either a Seifert fibered or a cusp hyperbolic space. In our construction we remove tubular neighbourhoods of singular orbits in areas of Seifert fibered manifolds using a splice operation and replace each with a cusp hyperbolic space. We thus achieve elimination of all singularities, which appear in the standard-like cosmological models, replacing them by “a torus to infinity”. From this construction, we propose an alternative manifold for cosmology with finite volume and without Friedmann-like singularities. This manifold was used for calculating coupling constants. Obtaining in this way a theoretical explanation for fundamental forces is at least in the sense of the hierarchy.

Lactic Acid Fermentation of Peppers  [PDF]
Maria Rosa Alberto, Maria Francisca Perera, Mario Eduardo Arena
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.411A007
Abstract:

Different peppers fermentations (Capsicum annum, grossum variety) were assayed: spontaneous, native microflora supplemented individually with Lactobacillus plantarum N8, Leuconostoc mesentereroides L. or Pediococcus pentosaceus 12p and by pure or combined cultures of these lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In order to eliminate the native flora, different kinds of heat treatment were assayed. The treatment selected was heating in autoclaved after research 3/4 atmosphere and to turn off. Fermentations were carried out at 22?C and 30?C and the culture media contained 2% or 0.2% glucose and 4% NaCl. Sugar consumption, pH reduction and acid production were higher at 30℃ than at 22℃. At both temperatures, spontaneous fermentation showed a slower rate reduction in pH than inoculated samples. Diminution in pH in presence of 2% glucose was faster than at 0.2%, but minimum pH was in both case lower than 3.0. Maximum growth was reached between 2 and 5 days of fermentation in all the samples assayed. After 30 days of incubation in presence of 2% glucose the survival of LAB was nearly 5 log ufc/ml. The survival was higher at the lower temperature assayed for both glucose concentrations. Organoleptic properties of peppers fermented with a mixed culture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were found best by a human panel. This sample has a relation lactic acid/acetic acid of nearly 3 in the conditions assayed.

New immunosuppressive drugs in heart transplantation
Maria Rosa Costanzo
Trials , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/cvm-2-1-045
Abstract: Data from the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) show that since 1995 the number of heart transplants (HTs) performed worldwide has gradually declined and was approximately 3000 in the year 2000 [1]. This small number of procedures is the main reason why only few randomized single-center, and even fewer multicenter, clinical trials have been performed so far in HT recipients. Other factors have hampered the performance of controlled studies in HT recipients. These include the following: the lack of a uniform system for measuring rejection severity until the publication of the ISHLT rejection grading system in 1991; the approximately 80% 1-year survival, which creates the requirement for patient populations larger than the total number of HTs performed worldwide to detect differences between the effects on outcome of two therapeutic interventions; the lack of reliable 'surrogate' endpoints, such as the incidence and severity of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, owing to the insensitivity of contrast coronary angiography for the detection of cardiac allograft vasculopathy; the lack of uniformity in maintenance immunosuppression and in the threshold to treat rejection; and the priority traditionally given to kidney transplant recipients for the randomized evaluation of new immunosuppressive therapies, which are then applied to HT recipients without the test of controlled trials.Despite these serious limitations, some important controlled evaluations of new immunosuppressive therapies have been conducted in HT recipients during the past decade. The main focus of these trials has been the prevention and treatment of HT rejection (Fig. 1).Antilymphocyte antibody preparations have been used as adjuncts to standard triple-drug immunosuppression [consisting of cyclosporine (CSA), corticosteroids, and azathioprine (AZA)] to prevent rejection in the early postoperative period after HT [2]. However, polyclonal antibody preparations, such as rabbit ant
Alimenta??o e codifica??o social. Mulheres, cozinha e estatuto
Perez, Rosa Maria;
Cadernos Pagu , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-83332012000200008
Abstract: this article is grounded on a long-term fieldwork carried out in rural india (gujarat) with a group of dalit women (the term for which are designated the "old" untouchables of india) and, by extension, with women from other social groups. i intend to analyze how food production, distribution, and cooking operate both as a form of segregation and of women's assertion of power, particularly in situations related to fertility.
Mídia, juventude e memória cultural
Fischer, Rosa Maria Bueno;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302008000300003
Abstract: this text aims to discuss relations between memory, media and youth. i discuss dates from a research with brazilian students about their cultural memories, alterity and audiovisual products in our culture. theoretical references are concepts from henri bergson, andreas huyssen, maria rita kehl and michel foucault. i put forward the argument that production of subjectivity, in our times, is narrowly related to the experience with images and texts from different media. technologies of communication and information offer an important source to memories construction, in order to shape our lives and our differences.
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