Abstract:
We study a Helmholtz-type spectral problem in a two-dimensional medium consisting of a fully periodic background structure and a perturbation in form of a line defect. The defect is aligned along one of the coordinate axes, periodic in that direction (with the same periodicity as the background), and bounded in the other direction. This setting models a so-called "soft-wall" waveguide problem. We show that there are no bound states, i.e., the spectrum of the operator under study contains no point spectrum.

Abstract:
We consider smooth, double-odd solutions of the two-dimensional Euler equation in $[-1, 1)^2$ with periodic boundary conditions. It is tempting to think that the symmetry in the flow induces possible double-exponential growth in time of the vorticity gradient at the origin, in particular when conditions are such that the flow is "hyperbolic". This is because examples of solutions with $C^{1, \gamma}$-regularity were already constructed with exponential gradient growth by A. Zlatos. We analyze the flow in a small box around the origin in a strongly hyperbolic regime and prove that the compression of the fluid induced by the hyperbolic flow alone is not sufficient to create double-exponential growth of the gradient.

Abstract:
This paper considers the propagation of TE-modes in photonic crystal waveguides. The waveguide is created by introducing a linear defect into a periodic background medium. Both the periodic background problem and the perturbed problem are modelled by a divergence type equation. A feature of our analysis is that we allow discontinuities in the coefficients of the operator, which is required to model many photonic crystals. It is shown that arbitrarily weak perturbations introduce spectrum into the spectral gaps of the background operator.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the singularity formation for two nonlocal 1D active scalar equations, focusing on the hyperbolic flow scenario. Those 1D equations can be regarded as simplified models of some 2D fluid equations.

Abstract:
The Doppler shift considered in general relativity involves mixed contributions of distinct, gravitational and kinematical origins and for most metrics or trajectories it takes a complex form. The expression for the Doppler shift may simplify due to particular symmetries. In Schwarzschild spacetime it factorizes in the case of radial fall for an observer and radial null geodesic. The resulting expression is composed of factors that can be identified with contributions arising from classical, special relativistic and general relativistic origins. This result turns out to be more general: it holds for the whole class of observers travelling parallel to the spatial path of null geodesics when receiving the signal. It also holds for a particular type of in-fall in the case of a Kerr metric.

Abstract:
Two different forms of time dilation, namely, the kinematical time dilation of special relativity and gravitational red shift are coupled during observations of systems moving through a gravitational field. In the particular situation of free fall in a Schwarzschild geometry these two effects are decoupled and in consequence the time dilation, as observed by a distant observer, factorises. Such a factorization is not a universal feature. We define here a necessary and sufficient criterion for time dilation and gravitational red-shift decoupling. This property is manifested in a particular form of the Doppler shift in Schwarzschild geometry.

Abstract:
We demonstrate that in the case of Schwarzschild spacetime the Doppler shift is partially factorized into terms representing relativistic, kinematical and the gravitational contributions. The condition for the complete factorization is derived. Application of these results to the simplest cases and possible implementation in the framework of GPS is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
The stable geodesics in Schwarzschild geometry can not approach the center closer than the radius of the photon sphere, 3/2 times the Schwarzschild radius. In other words, massive particles moving along geodesics that cross the photon sphere do not escape, they fall into the black hole.

Abstract:
The effects resulting due to dressing of an exciton with phonons are analysed as the source of unavoidable decoherence of orbital degrees of freedom in quantum dots. The dressing with longitudinal optical phonons results in energetic shift of order of a few meV even of the ground state of exciton in a state-of-the-art InAs/GaAs dot and the mediating role of longitudinal acoustical phonons is essential in this process. The characteristic time needed for dressing of the exciton with optical phonons is of a picosecond order. That time can be regarded as the lowest limit for decoherence for optically driven quantum gates employing self-assembled quantum dot structures.

Abstract:
Red shift in communication and possibility of interaction is discussed for objects around the event horizon of Schwarzschild space-time. It is pointed out that the arrow of time within the horizon cannot always be inferred by observations carried out outside. Two scenarios are presented for the causal structure of the space-time and it is found that in one of them extended objects fall apart into their elementary constituents by crossing the horizon.