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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 212815 matches for " Maria Pythias B. Espino "
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Occurrence and Determination of Haloacetic Acids in Metro Manila Drinking Water
Irene B. Rodriguez,Maria Pythias B. Espino
Science Diliman , 2009,
Abstract: Haloacetic acids are found in chlorinated water with high organic matter content. An analytical method based on a US EPA method for measuring these compounds in water is described. The optimized method used diethyl ether as extraction solvent with sulphuric acid-methanol as esterification agent and subsequent detection by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Evaluation of this method showed that it was linear in the concentration range of 10 to 150 μg L-1 and the method detection limits were from 17 to 57 μg L-1. Although the method demonstrated low recoveries (16 to 43%), it is useful in the quantitative determination of monochloroacetic acid as well as the qualitative determination of other haloacetic acids in water. Drinking water samples taken from different areas in Metro Manila serviced by the local treatment plants were analysed using the method. Monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and bromochloroacetic acid were detected in these samples. Monochloroacetic acid was quantified and found in concentrations ranging from 19 to 157 μg L-1. In most of the water samples, the concentration of monochloroacetic acid exceeded the US EPA maximum allowable total concentration of 60 μg L-1 for the five haloacetic acids (monochloro-, dichloro-, trichloro-, monobromo-, and dibromoacetic acids) in drinking water. This initial study established the occurrence of potentially harmful haloacetic acids in the local drinking water supplies.
Ion Chromatographic Method with Post-Column Fuchsin Reaction for Measurement of Bromate in Chlorinated Water
Homer C. Genuino,Maria Pythias B. Espino
Science Diliman , 2009,
Abstract: An ion chromatographic method that employs a post-column reaction with fuchsin and spectrophotometric detection was optimized for measuring bromate (BrO3-) in water. BrO3- is converted to Br2 by sodium metabisulfite and then reacted with acidic fuchsin to form a red-colored product that strongly absorbs at 530 nm. The reaction of BrO3- and fuchsin reagent is optimum at pH 3.5 and 65 oC. The method has a limit of quantitation of 4.5 μg L-1 and is linear up to 150 μg L-1 BrO3-. Recoveries from spiked samples were high ranging from 95 to 102 % using external standard calibration and 87 to 103 % using standard addition method. Intra-batch and inter-batch reproducibility studies of the method resulted to RSD values ranging from 0.62 to 2.01 % and percent relative error of 0.12 to 2.94 % for BrO3- concentrations of 10 μg L-1 and 50 μg L-1. This method is free of interferences from common inorganic anions at levels typically found in chlorinated tap drinking water without preconcentration. The optimized method can be applied to trace analysis of bromate in chlorinated tap drinking water samples.
Anions Analysis in Ground and Tap Waters by Sequential Chemical and CO2-Suppressed Ion Chromatography
Glen Andrew D. De Vera,Ma. Pythias B. Espino
Science Diliman , 2011,
Abstract: An ion chromatographic method using conductivity detection with sequential chemical and CO2 suppression was optimized for the simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate,phosphate and sulfate in ground and tap water. The separation was done using an anion exchange column with an eluent of 3.2 mM Na2CO3 and 3.2 mM NaHCO3 mixture. The method was linear in the concentration range of 5 to 300 μg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 for the six inorganic anions. The method was also shown to be applicable in trace anions analysis as given by the low method detection limits (MDL). The MDL was 1μg/L for both fluoride and chloride. Bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate had MDLs of 7 μg/L, 10 μg/L, 9 μg/L and 2 μg/L, respectively. Good precision was obtained as shown in the relative standard deviation of 0.1 to 12% for peak area and 0.1 to 0.3% for retention time. The sensitivity of the method improved with the addition of CO2 suppressor to chemical suppression as shown in the lower background conductivity and detection limits. The recoveries of the anions spiked in water at 300 μg/L level ranged from 100 to 104%. The method was demonstrated to be sensitive, accurate and precise for trace analysis of the six anions and was applied in the anions analysis in ground and tap waters in Malolos, Bulacan. The water samples were found to contain high concentrations of chloride of up to 476 mg/L followed by sulfate (38 mg/L), bromide (1 mg/L), phosphate (0.4 mg/L), fluoride (0.2 mg/L) and nitrate (0.1 mg/L).
Role of melatonin on diabetes-related metabolic disorders
Javier Espino,José A Pariente,Ana B Rodríguez
World Journal of Diabetes , 2011, DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v2.i6.82
Abstract: Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It is best known as a regulator of seasonal and circadian rhythms, its levels being high during the night and low during the day. Interestingly, insulin levels are also adapted to day/night changes through melatonin-dependent synchronization. This regulation may be explained by the inhibiting action of melatonin on insulin release, which is transmitted through both the pertussis-toxin-sensitive membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and the second messengers 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, 3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Melatonin may influence diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances not only by regulating insulin secretion, but also by providing protection against reactive oxygen species, since pancreatic β-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. On the other hand, in several genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphysms of the human MT2 receptor have been described as being causally linked to an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This suggests that these individuals may be more sensitive to the actions of melatonin, thereby leading to impaired insulin secretion. Therefore, blocking the melatonin-induced inhibition of insulin secretion may be a novel therapeutic avenue for type 2 diabetes.
Infección por Helicobacter pylori en pacientes sintomáticos con patología gastroduodenal benigna: Análisis de 5.664 pacientes Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients with benign gastroduodenal diseases: Analysis of 5.664 cases
Revista médica de Chile , 2010,
Abstract: Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is highly prevalent in Chile, but there are no systematic studies in patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Aim: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection, according to age, gender and endoscopic pathology in a large sample of patients. Methods: We studied 7,893 symptomatic patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between July 1996 and December 2003 in the context of a screening program of gastric cancer in a high risk population. H. pylori infection was determined by rapid urease test (RUT) in antral mucosa. We excluded 158 patients with gastric cancer (2%) and 2,071 patients without RUT. Results: We included 5,664 patients, mean age 50.7 ± 13.9 years, women 72.1%. Endoscopic diagnoses were normal in 59.3%, erosive esophagitis in 20%, gastric ulcer (GU) in 8.1%, duodenal ulcer (DU) in 6.4%, and erosive gastropathy in 6.2%. RUT was positive in 78% of patients. After adjusting for age and sex and with respect to patients with normal endoscopy, frequency of H. pylori infection was 86.6% in DU (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8, p < 0.001); 81.4% in GU (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.4; p < 0.001 ); 79.9% in erosive gastropathy (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.03-1.8; p = 0.03) and 77.4% in erosive esophagitis (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.3; p = NS). The probability of H. pylori infection decreased significantly with age, more markedly in men with normal endoscopy. Conclusions: Prevalence of H. pylori infection is very high in symptomatic Chilean patients and even higher in those with gastroduodenal ulcer or erosions, while in patients with erosive esophagitis is similar to those with normal endoscopy. The frequency of infection decreases with age, probably as a consequence of rising frequency of gastric mucosal atrophy.
Oxidative Stress and Immunosenescence: Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin
Javier Espino,José A. Pariente,Ana B. Rodríguez
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/670294
Abstract: Age-associated deterioration in the immune system, which is referred to as immunosenescence, contributes to an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer in the elderly. A summary of major changes associated with aging in immune system is described in this paper. In general, immunosenescence is characterized by reduced levels of peripheral na?ve T cells derived from thymus and the loss of immature B lineage cells in the bone marrow. As for macrophages and granulocytes, they show functional decline with advancing age as evidenced by their diminished phagocytic activity and impairment of superoxide generation. The indole melatonin is mainly secreted in the pineal gland although it has been also detected in many other tissues. As circulating melatonin decreases with age coinciding with the age-related decline of the immune system, much interest has been focused on melatonin’s immunomodulatory effect in recent years. Here, we underlie the antioxidant and immunoenhancing actions displayed by melatonin, thereby providing evidence for the potential application of this indoleamine as a “replacement therapy” to limit or reverse some of the effects of the changes that occur during immunosenescence. 1. Introduction All organisms experience the inevitable biological process referred to as aging. In general, aging is characterized by a time-dependent functional decline that leads to increased morbidity and mortality as a consequence of the cell’s incapacity to face external and internal challenges. Although aging is an extremely complex, a multifactorial process that has been the subject of considerable speculation, accumulated evidence identifies free radicals as a source of damage to cellular structure and function [1]. Among the countless theories proposed for aging, the free radical theory of aging (also known as oxidative stress theory) put forward by Harman in 1956 [2] has received extensive support. This theory proposes that organismal deterioration that occurs as a result of increasing longevity is specially a consequence of the persistent accumulation of free radical-mediated damage to essential molecules, which gradually compromises the function of cells, of tissues, and eventually of the organism itself [3]. Consequently, aging may be viewed as a process of irreversible injuries associated with accumulated oxidative debris. Since it was posed, the oxidative stress theory of aging has been continuously studied and modified [4, 5], giving a central involvement of mitochondria in determining the timing of senescence, that is,
Análisis del estado actual de la reforma psiquiátrica: debilidades y fortalezas: Amenazas y oportunidades
Revista de la Asociación Espa?ola de Neuropsiquiatría , 2002, DOI: 10.4321/S0211-57352002000100005
Abstract: the changes ocurring in the mental health sector in the last 20 years have been extraordinary. the first socialist legislature, with ernest lluchat the head of the ministry of health, reflected the generalized sentiment of ample groups of professionals and laid down the groundwork for change in mental health in spain: the report by the ministerial committee for psychiatric reform (1985) and the general law of health (1986) that pushed for the universalization of the right to healthcare. some years later, the april report(1991) echoed a new desire to introduce (albeit with difficulty) greater rigor in the organization and management of the public healt care system. the report would later be subject to and interested rereading of a conservative nature by the first government under the partido popular through the creation of a parliamentary subcommittee for the consolidation and modernization of the health care system (1997). its dripdown effects have revealed a progressive stagnation of both the development of health care services and the intellectual debate on the emerging needs and demands of our citizens. it is thus necessary to revive the debate on the current situation of mental health policy and its new possibilities within the framework of economic and social change seen in recent years. to this end a functionalist analysis has been followed based on techniques employed in the busines sector for the development of strategic analyses prior to introducing changes in the management of these organizations.
La salud mental en los noventa: guía para la discusión.
Antonio Espino
Revista de la Asociación Espa?ola de Neuropsiquiatría , 1995,
Abstract: Si contemplamos los campos de la clínica y la intervención psiquiátrica, desde los a os 60 hasta la actualidad asistimos a un continuo perfeccionamiento técnico-instrumental de lo ya existente. No ha habido, sin embargo, nada verdaderamente nuevo.
Análisis del estado actual de la reforma psiquiátrica: debilidades y fortalezas. Amenazas y oportunidades.
Antonio Espino
Revista de la Asociación Espa?ola de Neuropsiquiatría , 2002,
Abstract: El cambio producido en el sector de la salud mental en los últimos 20 a os ha sido extraordinario. La primera legislatura socialista, con Ernest Lluch al frente del Ministerio de Sanidad y haciendose eco de un sentimiento generalizado entre amplios grupos de profesionales, estableció las condiciones para el cambio de la salud mental en Espa a: el Informe de la Comisión Ministerial para la Reforma Psiquiátrica (1985) y la Ley General de Sanidad (1986), que promovió la universalización del derecho a la protección de la salud. Unos a os después, el llamado Informe Abril (1991) se hizo eco de una nueva sensibilidad por introducir, no sin dificultades, un mayor rigor en la organización y gestión del sistema público de salud, lo que sería objeto de una relectura interesada y de corte conservadora por parte del primer gobierno del Partido Popular a través de la creación de la Subcomisión Parlamentaria para la consolidación y modernización del sistema sanitario (1997). Sus efectos en goteo sobre nuestro sector delatan un progresivo estancamiento tanto en el desarrollo de servicios asistenciales como en la propia discusión intelectual sobre las nuevas necesidades y demandas ciudadanas. Es necesario reavivar el debate sobre la problemática actual de las políticas de salud mental y sus nuevas posibilidades en el marco de los cambios económicos y sociales habidos en estos últimos a os. Para ello se ha seguido un análisis de corte funcionalista basado en las técnicas utilizadas en el ámbito empresarial para desarrollar análisis estratégicos previos a la introducción de cambios en la gestión de dichas organizaciones.
Deciphering the Cryptic Genome: Genome-wide Analyses of the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi Reveal Complex Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Novel Metabolites
Philipp Wiemann equal contributor,Christian M. K. Sieber equal contributor,Katharina W. von Bargen equal contributor,Lena Studt,Eva-Maria Niehaus,Jose J. Espino,Kathleen Hu?,Caroline B. Michielse,Sabine Albermann,Dominik Wagner,Sonja V. Bergner,Lanelle R. Connolly,Andreas Fischer,Gunter Reuter,Karin Kleigrewe,Till Bald,Brenda D. Wingfield,Ron Ophir,Stanley Freeman,Michael Hippler,Kristina M. Smith,Daren W. Brown,Robert H. Proctor,Martin Münsterk?tter,Michael Freitag,Hans-Ulrich Humpf ,Ulrich Güldener ,Bettina Tudzynski
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003475
Abstract: The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes “bakanae” disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F. fujikuroi as a rice pathogen.
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