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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 77970 matches for " Maria Norma Melo "
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Leishmaniose visceral no Brasil: quadro atual, desafios e perspectivas
Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira;Melo, Maria Norma;
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-790X2004000300011
Abstract: visceral leishmaniasis has assumed an increasing importance in brazil due to its high incidence and wide geographical distribution. when associated with malnutrition and co-infections it can prove to be fatal. a notable increase in transmission rates related to urbanization has been observed in the past 20 years. a combination of measures is needed to define new methods for reducing transmission. this paper analyzes the main biological, environmental and social aspects that have influenced the spread and urbanization of the disease. the diagnostic tests and drugs available have been shown to be insufficient in both applicability and efficiency. significant advances have been made in the areas of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and they are discussed. current control measures are unable to eliminate and prevent new outbreaks and a brief report is presented on the challenges faced. vaccines against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis are being investigated, and there is hope that the first visceral leishmaniasis vaccine for dogs will become available in brazil next year. here we review these developments and identify priorities for research.
Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: apresenta??o pouco comum
Guedes, Antonio Carlos Martins;Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes R. de;Melo, Maria Norma;
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0365-05962008000500009
Abstract: we report the case of a patient with american cutaneous leishmaniasis and prominent lesions on the face. diagnostic criteria included clinical and epidemiological data, montenegro's skin test, identification of leishmania by means of polymerase chain reaction and clinical response to treatment. our report is important to call attention to an unusual presentation of american cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Alternative PCR protocol using a single primer set for assessing DNA quality in several tissues from a large variety of mammalian species living in areas endemic for leishmaniasis
Ferreira, Eduardo C;Gontijo, Célia M;Cruz, Israel;Melo, Maria Norma;Silva, Aristóbolo M;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762010000700009
Abstract: the aim of this work was to establish a modified pre-diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (pcr) protocol using a single primer set that enables successful amplification of a highly conserved mammalian sequence in order to determine overall sample dna quality for multiple mammalian species that inhabit areas endemic for leishmaniasis. the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (irbp), but not other conserved genes, was efficiently amplified in dna samples from tail skin, ear skin, bone marrow, liver and spleen from all of the species tested. in tissue samples that were pcr-positive for leishmania, we found that dna from 100%, 55% and 22% of the samples tested resulted in a positive pcr reaction for the irbp, beta-actin and beta-globin genes, respectively. nucleotide sequencing of an irbp amplicon resolved any questions regarding the taxonomical classification of a rodent, which was previously based simply on the morphological features of the animal. therefore, pcr amplification and analysis of the irbp amplicon are suitable for pre-diagnostically assessing dna quality and identifying mammalian species living in areas endemic to leishmaniasis and other diseases.
Distinctions between promastigotes of Leishmania species developing in the digestive tract of laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis
Silva, Ana Lúcia F. F. da;Williams, Paul;Melo, Maria Norma;Mayrink, Wilson;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1991, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761991000100011
Abstract: female lutzomya longipalpis were exposed to infection by three different species/strains of leishmania. when the insects were dissected four days after exposure, stained preparations were made of the flagellates contained in the digestive tract. using traditional morphometric methods, l. amazonensis, l. guyanensis and an unnamed species of the mexicana complex could be distinguished from one another.
Susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) to infection by different species and strains of Leishmania Ross, 1903
Silva, Ana Lúcia F. F. da;Williams, Paul;Melo, Maria Norma;Mayrink, Wilson;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1990, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761990000400010
Abstract: a study was undertaken to compare the susceptibility of laboratory-reared female lutzomyia longipalpis to infection by different species or strains of new world leishmania. the sand flies proved to be highly susceptible to infection by a strain of le. guyanensis, with flagellates developing in all (18/18) of the specimens examined. a lower infection rate of 37 per cents (10/27) was recorded in flies exposed to infection by a strain of le. amazonensis. flagellates developed in 13 per cents (6/46) of the sand flies that glood fed on dogs in the earlly stage of experimental infection with an old laboratory strain of le. chagasi. in contrast, promastigotes did not develop in sand flies that blood fed on dogs with naturally acquired le. chagasi. the naturally infected dogas were in an advanced stage of disease. flagellates developed in 9// (3/32) of the sand flies that blood fed on lesions of hamsters infected with a strain of le. braziliensis and in 9 per cents (3/34) of those that fed on hamsters with lesions due to a parasite fo the mexicana complex (strain mhom/br/73/bh121). sand flies did not develop flagellate infections after blood feeding on hamsters bearing lesions induced by strain mhom/br/71/br49. factors influencing the susceptibility of lu. longipalpis to infection by new world species of leishmania are discussed.
Chronic interstitial pneumonitis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi: a histopathological and morphometric study
Gon?alves, Ricardo;Tafuri, Washington Luiz;Melo, Maria Norma de;Raso, Pedro;Tafuri, Wagner Luiz;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652003000300007
Abstract: eighteen mongrel dogs of unknown age and naturally infected with leishmania (leishmania) chagasi, were obtained from the city hall of belo horizonte, brazil. four dogs were used as control. lung samples were obtained and immediately fixed in formalin. the histopathological picture of all lung tissue sections was a chronic and diffuse interstitial pneumonitis. the thickened inter-alveolar septa were characterized by the cellular exudate (mostly macrophages, lymphocytes and plasmocytes) associated with collagen deposition. morphometric analysis showed greater septal thickness in the infected animals than in controls. in fact, the morphometric study of collagen stained with ammoniac silver confirmed a larger deposition of collagen in the infected animals. the parasitologic method was carried out during the study of the lesions on the slides. however, we did not observe any correlation between the histopathologic and morphometric data and the clinical status of the animals. we conclude that the pulmonary lesions observed in all naturally infected dogs were correlated with the disease and that the morphometric method used was satisfactory for the analysis of septal thickness and of increased collagen deposition, confirming the presence of fibrosis.
Mosquito Frequency and Feeding Habits in an Enzootic Canine Dirofilariasis Area in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Labarthe Norma,Serr?o Maria Lúcia,Fontenele Melo Yuri,Oliveira Sebasti?o José de
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1998,
Abstract: Heartworm, a chronic fatal mosquito-borne canine disease, is frequently diagnosed in dogs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, where its prevalence is 29.7% in the city of Niterói. Nevertheless it is rarely detected in cats (0.8%) from the same state. Dogs are the primary source of infection to mosquitoes, because cats either do not demonstrate microfilaremia or it is too low and transient for transmission. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara, Niterói, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 21 mosquito species (3,888 females) was collected and biting frequency was highest at dusk. The four species collected most frequently (88.9%) were: Aedes taeniorhynchus (30% of the total catch; with the peak in May/June); Culex quinquefasciatus (22.5%; August/October); Aedes scapularis (19.4%; August, October/November and January) and Culex declarator (17%; November/January). Human baits were attractive to these species and dogs were significantly more attractive to them than cats. Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. declarator and Cx. nigripalpus are the most likely mosquito species to transmit Dirofilaria immitis parasites to dogs and may transmit the parasite to humans. It is also suggested that the vector to cats belongs to the genus Culex
Potential Vectors of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) in Itacoatiara, Oceanic Region of Niterói Municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Labarthe Norma,Serr?o Maria Lúcia,Melo Yuri Fontenele,Oliveira Sebasti?o José de
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1998,
Abstract: Dirofilaria immitis is a widespread mosquito-borne parasite that causes dirofilariasis, a commonly diagnosed disease of dogs that is rarely reported in cats and humans. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara in the State of Rio de Janeiro, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 3,667 mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae, representing 19 species and 10 genera. From those, Ae. scapularis, Ae taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. declarator, Cx. saltanensis and Wy. bourrouli were found infected with D. immitis parasites, and among those, only the first three harbored infective larvae. The majority of larvae were found in the Malpighian tubules (889/936), and larval melanization was observed in the two Aedes species. In descending order, the best vectors were Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus which alternate seasonally in importance. Cx. quinquefasciatus is suggested to be a vector to cats. The potential transmission of D. immitis parasites by these three vectors to man is discussed.
Chronic interstitial pneumonitis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi: a histopathological and morphometric study
Gon?alves Ricardo,Tafuri Washington Luiz,Melo Maria Norma de,Raso Pedro
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2003,
Abstract: Eighteen mongrel dogs of unknown age and naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, were obtained from the City Hall of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Four dogs were used as control. Lung samples were obtained and immediately fixed in formalin. The histopathological picture of all lung tissue sections was a chronic and diffuse interstitial pneumonitis. The thickened inter-alveolar septa were characterized by the cellular exudate (mostly macrophages, lymphocytes and plasmocytes) associated with collagen deposition. Morphometric analysis showed greater septal thickness in the infected animals than in controls. In fact, the morphometric study of collagen stained with ammoniac silver confirmed a larger deposition of collagen in the infected animals. The parasitologic method was carried out during the study of the lesions on the slides. However, we did not observe any correlation between the histopathologic and morphometric data and the clinical status of the animals. We conclude that the pulmonary lesions observed in all naturally infected dogs were correlated with the disease and that the morphometric method used was satisfactory for the analysis of septal thickness and of increased collagen deposition, confirming the presence of fibrosis.
Produ o do conhecimento sobre promo o da saúde e prática da enfermeira na Aten o Primária Producción de conocimiento acerca de la promoción de la salud y práctica de la enfermera en la Atención Primaria Production of knowledge on health promotion and nurse's practice in Primary Health Care
Nildo Batista Mascarenhas,Cristina Maria Meira de Melo,Norma Carapiá Fagundes
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem , 2012,
Abstract: Trata-se de uma revis o integrativa que analisa a produ o científica nacional sobre a promo o da saúde e a prática da enfermeira no campo da aten o primária. Com o desenvolvimento do estudo, verificou-se que a discuss o deste tema é pouco explorada no campo da Enfermagem e que a promo o da saúde ainda é compreendida como sin nimo da educa o em saúde e/ou da preven o de doen as. Conclui-se que a educa o em saúde é uma estratégia essencial para o alcance da promo o da saúde e que uma n o se resume à outra. Além disso, é necessário que as enfermeiras reconhe am a promo o da saúde como um campo de práxis capaz de transformar a realidade social e sua própria prática. Esta es revisión integradora que analiza la producción científica nacional acerca de la promoción de la salud y práctica de la enfermera en la atención primaria. Con el desarrollo del estudio, se encontró que la discusión de este tema es poco explorada en la enfermería y que y la promoción de la salud sigue siendo entendida como sinónimo de educación para la salud y / o de prevención de enfermedades. Se concluye que la educación para la salud es una estrategia esencial para el logro de promoción de la salud, con el entendimiento de que una no se limita a otra. También es necesario que las enfermeras reconocen la promoción de la salud como un campo de praxis que puede transformar la realidad social y su propia práctica. This is an integrative review that examines the national scientific production on health promotion and nurse's practice in the field of primary health care. With the development of the study, it was found that the discussion of this theme is little explored in nursing and that health promotion is still understood as synonymous of health education and / or prevention of disease. It is concluded that health education is an essential strategy to achieve the health promotion, understanding that one is not restricted to the other. Moreover, it is necessary that nurses recognize health promotion as a field of practice can transform social reality and their own practice.
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