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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 268208 matches for " Maria Helena D'Aquino; Monteiro "
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Tendência secular da doen?a diarréica na infancia na cidade de S?o Paulo (1984-1996)
Benicio,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Monteiro,Carlos Augusto;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102000000700011
Abstract: objective: data from two consecutive household surveys undertaken in mid-80s and mid-90s allow to characterize and analyse secular trends in infant and child diarrhea in the city of s. paulo, brazil. methods: the two surveys included random population samples aged from zero to 59 months of age (1,016 in the period of 1984-85 and 1,280 in 1995-96). in both surveys the instant prevalence of diarrhea (proportion of examined individuals reporting three or more episodes of liquid stools in 24 hours) and the annual incidence of hospitalizations due to the disease were calculated. these two indicators were estimated from household interviews conducted by pediatricians with the children's mothers. in both surveys the interviews were distributed throughout a period of almost 12 months to assure a uniform coverage of the various areas of the city during the four seasons. for each survey, the study of the social distribution of the disease took into account tertiles of the per capita family income. for the study of the determinants of secular trends, hierarchical causal models, multivariate regression analyses and calculations analogous to the ones used to assess population attributable risks were applied. results/conclusions: in the time span from the first to the second survey, there was substantial reduction in both the prevalence of diarrhea (from 1.70% to 0.90%) and the hospitalizations due to the disease (from 2.21 to 0.79 hospitalizations per 100 children-year). a more significant reduction was observed among the third poorest families, narrowing the social gradient relative to the disease. an increase in family income and improvement in water supply could substantially explain part of the decline in the disease and, for children under two years of age, a discrete increase in breast-feeding may have also played a positive role.
Estudo das condi??es de saúde das crian?as do Município de S?o Paulo, SP (Brasil), 1984/1985: VI. Doen?a respiratória
Monteiro,Carlos Augusto; Benício,Maria Helena D'Aquino;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101987000500004
Abstract: as part of a broad survey on the health status of children living in the city of s?o paulo, a random sample of under-fives (n=1,016) was investigated in relation to rates and distribution of respiratory diseases. based on medical histories and physical examinations carried out at home, the point prevalence of episodes of respiratory disease and the yearly incidence of hospitalizations due to those episodes were calculates. on the day of the examination, 29.0% of the children surveyed had signs and/or symptons of respiratory disease (high episodes, disease not passing the larynx, were three times more frequent than low episodes). the yearly incidence of hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases was 6.5 per 100 children; rates due exclusively to pneumonia and to respiratory disease with an obstructive component were, respectively, 3.5 and 2.8. in comparison with the existent literature, the rates found in the city of s?o paulo were very high, equal to or even higher than those registered in very poor countries of the third world. the age of the children proved to be an important determinant of respiratory disease, the youngest children being the group most affected. strong influence of the socio-economic level was found in the case of hospitalizations due to pneumonia, but in relation to the other indicators of respiratory disease little or no influence was registered. this fact suggests that at least part of the very high frequency of respiratory disease in the city of s?o paulo could be attributed to factors not directly related to the socio-economic conditions of the population.
Tendência secular da doen a diarréica na infancia na cidade de S o Paulo (1984-1996)
Benicio Maria Helena D'Aquino,Monteiro Carlos Augusto
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e a distribui o social da doen a diarréica na infancia, estabelecer a tendência secular dessa enfermidade e analisar sua determina o, através dos dados coletados por dois inquéritos domiciliares realizados na cidade de S o Paulo, SP, em 1984/85 e 1995/96. MéTODOS: Os inquéritos estudaram amostras probabilísticas da popula o residente na cidade com idades entre zero e 59 meses (1.016 em 1984/85 e 1.280 em 1995/96). Nos dois inquéritos foram estimadas a prevalência instantanea da diarréia (propor o de crian as com três ou mais evacua es líquidas no dia da entrevista domiciliar) e a incidência anual de interna es hospitalares pela doen a. Esses dois indicadores foram calculados a partir de entrevistas domiciliares feitas por médicos pediatras e respondidas pelas m es das crian as. Nos dois inquéritos, as entrevistas foram distribuídas ao longo de um período de cerca de 12 meses, de modo a garantir uma varredura uniforme das várias áreas da cidade ao longo das quatro esta es do ano. O estudo da distribui o social da doen a diarréica levou em conta tercis da renda familiar per capita em cada um dos inquéritos. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da evolu o da prevalência da doen a na popula o empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade, análises multivariadas de regress o e procedimentos análogos aos utilizados para calcular riscos atribuíveis populacionais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUS ES: Houve entre os inquéritos redu es expressivas na prevalência instantanea da diarréia (de 1,70% para 0,90%) e na incidência anual de hospitaliza es pela doen a (de 2,21 para 0,79 interna es por 100 crian as-ano). O declínio desses indicadores foi mais intenso no ter o mais pobre da popula o, o que contribuiu para reduzir a desigualdade social quanto à ocorrência da doen a. Melhorias no poder aquisitivo das famílias e na cobertura da rede pública de abastecimento de água justificariam parte considerável do declínio na prevalência da diarréia, havendo ainda indica o de que, entre crian as menores de dois anos, esse declínio possa ter sido favorecido por um aumento discreto na freqüência da amamenta o.
Tendência secular da doen?a respiratória na infancia na cidade de S?o Paulo (1984-1996)
Benicio,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Cardoso,Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia,Nelson da Cruz; Monteiro,Carlos Augusto;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102000000700012
Abstract: objective: data from two consecutive household surveys undertaken in mid-80s and mid-90s allow to characterize and analyse secular trends in infant and child respiratory diseases in the city of s. paulo, brazil. methods: the two surveys included random population samples aged from zero to 59 months (1,016 in the period of 1984-85 and 1,280 in 1995-96). in both surveys the instant prevalence of high respiratory diseases (above the epiglottis) and low respiratory diseases with or without wheezing were calculated. all sampled children were examined in their household at a random day by trained pediatricians using standardized procedures. the examinations included medical history, past respiratory diseases and a complete physical examination. in both surveys the examinations were distributed throughout a period of almost 12 months to assure a uniform coverage of the various areas of the city along the four seasons of the year. for each survey, the study of the social distribution of the diseases took into account tertiles of the per capita family income. for the study of the determinants of secular trends, hierarchical causal models, multivariate regression analyses and calculations analogous to the ones used to assess population attributable risks were applied. results/conclusions: in the time span from the first to the second survey, there was a substantial increase in the prevalence of both low (from 22.2% to 38.8%) and high respiratory diseases (from 6.0% to 10.0% and from 0.8% to 2.8%, without and with wheezing, respectively). in the case of high respiratory disease and low respiratory disease without wheezing, an increase in prevalence was observed among all social strata, which did not interfere with the slightly less favourable situation of the lower income groups. in the case of low respiratory disease with wheezing, the increase was only observed among middle and low-income groups, being particularly high among the lower income group, yielding a significant in
Estudo das condi??es de saúde das crian?as do Município de S?o Paulo (Brasil), 1984/1985: IX - Cobertura e qualidade da assistência materno-infantil
Monteiro,Carlos Augusto; Medina,Maria Célia Guerra; Benicio,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Meyer,Maurício;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1988, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101988000300002
Abstract: a survey of 1,016 randomly selected children under five years of age was carried out in s. paulo city, brazil, with a view to studying the epidemiology of health conditions. the quality and the coverage of maternal and child care were observed. both characteristics were estimated by means of domiciliary interviews. the prenatal care coverage was 92.9%. in 70% of the cases prenatal care started in the first quarter of pregnancy and the number of visits was 6 or more. ninety-nine percent of the children were born in hospitals and in 47.1% of the cases caesarean section was mentioned. ninety-eight percent of the children went, at least once, to well-baby clinics, about two thirds of them during the first two months of life. with regard to the activities provided by those clinics, a great concentration of visits in the first year of life (averaging 7.7 visits per child) was observed as well as a high percentage of immunized children (sabin 86.7%, dpt 85.1%, bcg 89.0%, measles 85.9%), a striking decrease of visits after 12 months of age and a very small proportion of children attended by an odontology specialist (19.5%). considering the global coverage of maternal and infant care, minimal differences were observed between socioeconomic strata. nevertheless the differences were impressive when qualitative aspects of the care were taken into account. compared with other surveys made in brazil, the present one shows that the situation of s. paulo city is better than that of other urban areas of the country. it was also observed that there has been an increase in maternal and child care coverage over the last decade. the main problems still found in the city seem to be related to the qualitative aspects of the assistance. early attraction of women for prenatal care and an increase in the coverage of well-baby clinics after the first year of life are definitely necessary, particularly for the poorest segments of the population. one important aspect which is a reason for conce
Tendência secular da doen a respiratória na infancia na cidade de S o Paulo (1984-1996)
Benicio Maria Helena D'Aquino,Cardoso Maria Regina Alves,Gouveia Nelson da Cruz,Monteiro Carlos Augusto
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e a distribui o social da doen a respiratória na infancia, estabelecer a tendência secular dessa enfermidade e analisar sua determina o, com base nos dados coletados por dois inquéritos domiciliares realizados na cidade de S o Paulo, SP, em 1984/85 e em 1995/96. MéTODOS: Os inquéritos estudaram amostras probabilísticas da popula o residente na cidade com idades entre zero e 59 meses (1.016 em 1984/85 e 1.280 em 1995/96). Nos dois inquéritos estimou-se a prevalência instantanea da doen a respiratória alta (acima da epiglote) e da doen a respiratória baixa com e sem chiado à ausculta pulmonar. A ocorrência da doen a respiratória foi aferida por exames clínicos realizados em dias aleatórios, nos próprios domicílios das crian as, por médicos pediatras devidamente treinados e padronizados quanto ao diagnóstico da doen a. Os exames clínicos incluíam a anamnese do dia, antecedentes de doen a respiratória e o exame físico completo da crian a, incluindo inspe o da orofaringe, otoscopia e ausculta pulmonar. Nos dois inquéritos, os exames foram distribuídos ao longo de um período de cerca de 12 meses, de modo a garantir uma varredura uniforme das várias áreas da cidade ao longo das quatro esta es. O estudo da distribui o social da doen a respiratória levou em conta tercis da renda familiar per capita em cada um dos inquéritos. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da evolu o da prevalência da doen a na popula o empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade, análises multivariadas de regress o e procedimentos análogos aos utilizados para calcular riscos atribuíveis populacionais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUS ES: Houve entre os inquéritos aumentos expressivos na prevalência instantanea da doen a respiratória alta (de 22,2% para 38,8%) e da doen a respiratória baixa sem e com chiado (de 6,0% para 10,0% e de 0,8% para 2,8%, respectivamente). No caso da doen a alta e da doen a baixa sem chiado, o aumento é generalizado nos vários estratos sociais, o que n o altera, no período, a situa o discretamente menos favorável dos estratos de menor renda. No caso da doen a baixa com chiado, o aumento se restringe aos estratos de renda baixa e intermediária, sendo particularmente intenso no estrato de menor renda, o que determina o surgimento de uma forte rela o inversa entre a doen a e a renda familiar. Mudan as positivas em determinantes distais das doen as respiratórias (renda familiar e escolaridade materna) e em variáveis relacionadas à salubridade das moradias justificariam declínio modesto e n o aumento das doen as respiratórias
Mortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e a distribui??o de renda e de recursos públicos de saúde, S?o Paulo (Brasil)
Monteiro,Carlos Augusto; Benício,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Baldij?o,Márcia F. A.;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1980, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101980000400009
Abstract: it was made a study to identify the distribution of the infant death rates and the distribution of income, and the distribution of certain public health facilities in the 55 districts of the city of s. paulo (brazil) and, then, to analyze the similarity among them. the infant death rates and concentration of low income families increased from the center to the periphery of the city. the public health facilities - water supply, maternity beds, and state health centers - also decreased from the center to the periphery of the city. both the increasing distribution of income and the decreasing distribution of public facilities were positively related to the increasing mortality distribution. the conclusion, therefore, is that, in s. paulo, income and public facilities are synergic; that is, they mutually reinforce the inequalities observed through the infant mortality.
Tendência secular do peso ao nascer na cidade de S?o Paulo (1976-1998)
Monteiro,Carlos Augusto; Benicio,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Ortiz,Luiz Patricio;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102000000700006
Abstract: objective: data from two household surveys on infant and child health status undertaken in the mid-80s and mid-90s, complemented with previous data collected from maternity hospitals records and more recent data provided by the state system on birth registries, allowed to characterize and analyse secular trends in birth weight in the city of s. paulo, brazil. methods: the household surveys included random samples of children under 5 years old (n=1,016 children in 1984-85 and n=1,280 children in 1995-96). a random sample of births that took place in the city's hospitals in the year of 1976 (n=5,734) was drawn from the hospital records. birth registries refer to children born in the city between 1993 and 1998 (around 200,000 per year). the study of the social distribution of birth weight took into account the per capita family income and maternal schooling. for the analysis of the determinants of secular trends, hierarchical causal models, multivariate regression analyses and calculations analogous to the ones used to assess population attributable risks were applied. results/conclusions: birth weight distribution in s. paulo city (an average of 3,160 g and 8.9% of the values <2,500 g) is below the expected for optimum fetal growth conditions (average 3,400-3,500 g and 4-5% of the values <2,500 g). the birth weight distribution did not change substantially along the study period (1976-1998). however, there are evidences of changes when different socioeconomic strata are considered separately. among the lower strata trends have been positive and this seems to be due to increases in intrauterine growth as a result of an improvement in family's purchasing power, women's weight and height, prenatal care and, possibly, the reduction in smoking. among the higher socioeconomic strata, birth weight trends have been negative apparently due to an increase in premature births of unknown origin.
Estudo antropométrico-nutricional de pré-escolares de áreas de baixa renda do Estado de S?o Paulo, Brasil
Monteiro,Carlos Augusto; Reis,Isildinha Marques dos; Benício,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Gandra,Yaro Ribeiro;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1984, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101984000100001
Abstract: in order to evaluate nutritional status at pre-school age in low income areas of the state of s. paulo, 1,359 children ranging from two to six years underwent an anthropometric examination which included weight and height and measurements of the muscular and fatty areas of the transversal section of the left arm. the analysis of the measurements was made by comparison with measurements taken simultaneously among a population of pre-school children of high socio-economic standing in the county of s. paulo. averages according to age were compared and then, by regression analysis according to age, the rates of "growth" of the various measurements were also compared. the analyses indicate that towards the end of pre-school age the children belonging to low income areas present considerable retardation in their growth (approximately 5 cm in height and 5 kg in weight). the transversal section of the arm of these children, at the same period, was reduced both in rigard to muscular and fatty tissue (about 2 cm2 and 4 cm2, respectively). the same analyses indicate different chronological timings as to the appearance of the deficits encountered during the final stages of pre-school age. thus, the height as well as the arm muscular area deficits occur predominantly before two years of age whilst the weight and the arm fatty tissue area deficits occur mainly at pre-school age. the data obtained suggest that before two years of age the interaction agent-host responsible for the appearance of malnutrition causes damage, above all, to protein synthesis. throughout pre-school age that interaction damages, principally, the caloric reserve synthesis. alterations regarding the agent and/or at the level of the host could be responsible for the differences observed in both periods. so as better to understand them, factors such as caloric and proteic adequacy of the diets, the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and the adaptative mechanisms of the body should be investigated.
A distribui??o do peso ao nascer no município de S?o Paulo, Brasil
Monteiro,Carlos Augusto; Ishii,Midori; Benício,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Rea,Marina Ferreira;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1980, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101980000200002
Abstract: in 1976, a survey was made of the birth-weight of live births in the maternity hospitals in the city of s. paulo, brazil and was used to calculate the distribution of birth-weight in the city. incidence of birth weight lower than 2,501 grams and between 2,501 and 3,000 grams, 9.7% and 28.4%, was two times greater than that expected in a developed city and occurred more often in public hospitals than in private hospitals.
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