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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 523402 matches for " Maria A. Mimikou "
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Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Greece: A General Overview  [PDF]
Maria A. Mimikou, Evangelos A. Baltas
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.21005
Abstract:

The climatic and hydrological systems are tightly related and any induced changes cause chained interactions. In an attempt to adequately manage water resources in Greece, a series of experiments were conducted with different GCMs in selected study areas to understand this interplay. This paper is an overview of the studies carried out in the Aliakmon, the Upper Acheloos, the Portaikos, and the Pinios basins, where the regional hydrological cycle was evaluated on river basin spatial scale to assess regional impacts and variability. The impacts of climate change on the water resources are presented in a synthetic quantitative way, in order to draw general conclusions concerning the trends of the hydrological indicators. A good agreement was observed between the different climatic experiments, and the trends on the selected hydrological indicators demonstrate an increase in temperature and PET, reduction in the mean annual precipitation and runoff, and a shifting of the snowmelt period towards the winter, while the snowpack storage was proved to be a controlling factor. It is accentuated that relatively small decreases in the mean annual precipitation cause dramatic increase of reservoir risk levels of annual firm water supply and energy production. As a result, radical increases of reservoir storage volume are required to maintain firm water and energy yields at tolerable risk levels. The adaptive capacity of the country is not that high, and a series of serious actions need to be taken in order to mitigate the effects of climate change and assess its impacts.

Technical Note: Determination of the SCS initial abstraction ratio in an experimental watershed in Greece
E. A. Baltas, N. A. Dervos,M. A. Mimikou
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: The present study was conducted in an experimental watershed in Attica, Greece, using observed rainfall/runoff events. The objective of the study was the determination of the initial abstraction ratio of the watershed. The average ratio (Ia/S) of the entire watershed was equal to 0.014. The corresponding ratio at a subwatershed was 0.037. The difference was attributed to the different spatial distribution of landuses and geological formations at the extent of the watershed. Both of the determined ratios are close to the ratio value of 0.05 that has been suggested from many studies for the improvement of the SCS-CN method.
Research on the initial abstraction – storage ratio and its effect on hydrograph simulation at a watershed in Greece
E. A. Baltas,N. A. Dervos,M. A. Mimikou
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The present research was conducted at an experimental watershed in the prefecture of Attica, Greece, using the selected observed rainfall-runoff events from a four-year time period. The objectives of this study were two: The first was the determination of the initial abstraction Ia – watershed storage S ratio. The average ratio (Ia/S) was equal to 0.014. The corresponding ratio at a subwatershed was 0.037. The difference was attributed to the different spatial distribution of landuses at the extent of the watershed. The second objective of the study was to examine the effect of the SCS empirical equation on hydrograph simulation. This was investigated through the comparison between the observed and two different simulated hydrographs at each one out of eighteen selected storm events. The simulated hydrographs were calculated by applying on the watershed's unit hydrograph two time distributions of excess rainfall that derived from the SCS method using two different approaches. In the first approach, the initial abstraction was determined from the observed rainfall-runoff data, while in the second, it was calculated using the SCS empirical equation. It was found that the SCS empirical equation estimates greater amount of initial abstraction and leads to the delayed start of the excess rainfall and the simulated runoff. This resulted in the overestimation of the peak flow rate and the time to peak at the majority of the storm events.
Differential Effects of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption on Dopamine Output in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell of Roman High- and Low-Avoidance Rats: A Behavioral and Brain Microdialysis Study  [PDF]
Maria G. Corda, Giovanna Piras, Maria A. Piludu, Osvaldo Giorgi
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2014.43031
Abstract:

The Roman high(RHA) and low-Avoidance (RLA) rats were selectively bred for rapid vs poor acquisition of two-way active avoidance behavior. These lines differ in numerous behavioral traits, with RLA rats being more fearful/anxious than RHA rats, and the latter being novelty-seekers and showing larger intake of, and preference for, addictive substances including ethanol (ETH). Moreover, several differences in central dopaminergic, serotonergic, and GABAergic functions have been reported in these two lines. Since those neural systems are involved in the regulation of ETH consumption, it was considered of interest to investigate: 1) the differences in ETH intake and preference between RHA and RLA rats, 2) the effects of ETH on DA release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) using brain microdialysis. ETH solutions of increasing concentrations (2% - 10%) were presented on alternate days in a free choice with water. To examine ETH intake and preference stability, animals were subsequently switched to daily presentations of 10% ETH for 10 consecutive days. RHA rats consumed significantly larger amounts of ETH and displayed higher ETH preference than did RLA rats throughout the acquisition and maintenance phases. Following chronic exposure to ETH the animals were habituated to a restricted access to ETH schedule (2% ETH, 2 h per day × 4 days) before surgical implantation of a dialysis probe in the AcbSh. Under these experimental conditions, voluntary ETH intake (2%, 1 h, p.o.) produced a significant increase in accumbal DA output in RHA rats but not in their RLA counterparts. Finally, the i.p. administration of ETH (0.25 g/kg) to na?ve Roman rats produced a significant increment in accumbal DA output only in RHA rats. These results indicate that the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of RHA rats is

Microfungal communities in soil polluted with fluoride  [PDF]
Galina A. Evdokimova, Maria V. Korneykova
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.29125
Abstract: There have been identified three zones according to the degree of soil pollution with fluoride in the impact area of air emissions of the Kandalaksha Aluminium Smelter (Russia): zone of maximum pollution up to 2.5 km from the emission source with the content of fluoride from 5000 to 1200 mg/kg, zone of strong pollution up to 13 km from the plant with the content of fluoride between 1200-400 mg/kg and zone of moderate pollution up to 20 km from the source with content of fluoride between 400-200 mg/kg. Emissions of the aluminium plant have reduced the number and the diversity of fungi and have caused an increase in fungal communities that are potentially pathogenic fungi. The biomass of fungi has decreased in the organic horizon of the maximum polluted soil from 5.4 to 3.6 mg/g. As a whole, emissions from the aluminium plant in the Murmansk region are less toxic for the environment, than emissions of copper-nickel enterprises.
Microfungal communities in soil polluted with fluoride  [PDF]
Galina A. Evdokimova,Maria V. Korneykova
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2009.29125
Abstract: There have been identified three zones according to the degree of soil pollution with fluoride in the impact area of air emissions of the Kandalaksha Aluminium Smelter (Russia): zone of maximum pollution up to 2.5 km from the emission source with the content of fluoride from 5000 to 1200 mg/kg, zone of strong pollution up to 13 km from the plant with the content of fluoride between 1200-400 mg/kg and zone of moderate pollution up to 20 km from the source with content of fluoride between 400-200 mg/kg. Emissions of the aluminium plant have reduced the number and the diversity of fungi and have caused an increase in fungal communities that are potentially pathogenic fungi. The biomass of fungi has decreased in the organic horizon of the maximum polluted soil from 5.4 to 3.6 mg/g. As a whole, emissions from the aluminium plant in the Murmansk region are less toxic for the environment, than emissions of copper-nickel enterprises.
An Alternative Manifold for Cosmology Using Seifert Fibered and Hyperbolic Spaces  [PDF]
Maria E. Mejía, Reinaldo R. Rosa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.56096
Abstract:

We propose a model with 3-dimensional spatial sections, constructed from hyperbolic cusp space glued to Seifert manifolds which are in this case homology spheres. The topological part of this research is based on Thurston’s conjecture which states that any 3-dimensional manifold has a canonical decomposition into parts, each of which has a particular geometric structure. In our case, each part is either a Seifert fibered or a cusp hyperbolic space. In our construction we remove tubular neighbourhoods of singular orbits in areas of Seifert fibered manifolds using a splice operation and replace each with a cusp hyperbolic space. We thus achieve elimination of all singularities, which appear in the standard-like cosmological models, replacing them by “a torus to infinity”. From this construction, we propose an alternative manifold for cosmology with finite volume and without Friedmann-like singularities. This manifold was used for calculating coupling constants. Obtaining in this way a theoretical explanation for fundamental forces is at least in the sense of the hierarchy.

Planning and Implementing Food Fortification Programs to Combat Micronutrient Malnutrition: Iron  [PDF]
Maria N García-Casal
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.510097
Abstract:

Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world and food fortification is a cost-effective approach to combat it. This paper reviews the food fortification process with micronutrients, with special emphasis on iron and the most critical steps and common difficulties found when implementing a program. The first step is to measure the magnitude of the problem and the groups affected by iron deficiency and anemia, to determine if there is a need for fortification. Then the adequate iron compound and vehicle should be selected, to obtain a bioavailable form of iron in a frequently consumed food item without changing the taste, appearance or cooking characteristics of the final food item or complete meals containing it, to assure the acceptance by consumers. Before implementation, bioavailability studies are in order for the fortified food item and for complete meals especially typical or traditional meals, followed by field studies and pilot tests. Once implemented, the program should be monitored and evaluated continuously, and the impact on health assessed periodically to give the program the flexibility for continuation made changes or finalization when necessary. Other key elements for successful implementation of food fortification programs include the presence of a viable food industry; available channels for food marketing and distribution; a health care system to identify and monitor micronutrient malnutrition in the population; institutions for education, treatment and evaluation of the impact of the program; and continuous and effective input into the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the intervention to ensure sustainability of the intervention.

Playing against Hedge  [PDF]
Miltiades E. Anagnostou, Maria A. Lambrou
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.712050
Abstract: Hedge has been proposed as an adaptive scheme, which guides the player’s hand in a multi-armed bandit full information game. Applications of this game exist in network path selection, load distribution, and network interdiction. We perform a worst case analysis of the Hedge algorithm by using an adversary, who will consistently select penalties so as to maximize the player’s loss, assuming that the adversary’s penalty budget is limited. We further explore the performance of binary penalties, and we prove that the optimum binary strategy for the adversary is to make greedy decisions.
Investigation of the torsional deformation of the complete upper denture: A pilot study  [PDF]
Anthony E. Prombonas, Maria A. Paralika, Nikolas A. Poulis
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.64055
Abstract:

The aim of this research is to clarify whether the midline axis of the complete upper denture (CUD) is the axis of its torsion during loading, apart from the known bending deflection. Furthermore the present study is intended to estimate the influence of the anterior notches on the torsional deformation of the CUD. Using commercial edentulous molds and standardized procedures, six identical CUDs were fabricated with an initial fraenal notch of 5 mm. Two additional notch conditions were produced by deepening the notch to a total depth of 9 mm and by creating an incisal diastema of 7 mm. Five biaxial (also known as “fish bone”) strain gauges were cemented onto the palatal section of the dentures so that their middle axis coincided with the midline axis of the outer surface of the denture. For the denture specimen used in this study, the specific point of torsion was detected 2 cm from the point of contact of the two artificial central incisors. The presence of a deep fraenal notch and the combination of the deep fraenal notch with the presence of an incisal diastema increased the torsion of the CUD to a significant level (P = 0.006 and P = 0.05, respectively). It was shown that the midline can be the CUD’s axis of torsion. Biaxial strain gauges could be a reliable method of measuring the torsional deformation of the CUD.

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