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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3109 matches for " Margarita Karovska "
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Quasar Parallax: a Method for Determining Direct Geometrical Distances to Quasars
Martin Elvis,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/346015
Abstract: We describe a novel method to determine direct geometrical distances to quasars that can measure the cosmological constant, Lambda, with minimal assumptions. This method is equivalent to geometric parallax, with the `standard length' being the size of the quasar broad emission line region (BELR) as determined from the light travel time measurements of reverberation mapping. The effect of non-zero Lambda on angular diameter is large, 40% at z=2, so mapping angular diameter distances vs. redshift will give Lambda with (relative) ease. In principle these measurements could be made in the UV, optical, near infrared or even X-ray bands. Interferometers with a resolution of 0.01mas are needed to measure the size of the BELR in z=2 quasars, which appear plausible given reasonable short term extrapolations of current technology.
Long-Period Variability in o Ceti
Matthew R. Templeton,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1470
Abstract: We carried out a new and sensitive search for long-period variability in the prototype of the Mira class of long-period pulsating variables, o Ceti (Mira A), the closest and brightest Mira variable. We conducted this search using an unbroken light curve from 1902 to the present, assembled from the visual data archives of five major variable star observing organizations from around the world. We applied several time-series analysis techniques to search for two specific kinds of variability: long secondary periods (LSPs) longer than the dominant pulsation period of ~333 days, and long-term period variation in the dominant pulsation period itself. The data quality is sufficient to detect coherent periodic variations with photometric amplitudes of 0.05 mag or less. We do not find evidence for coherent LSPs in o Ceti to a limit of 0.1 mag, where the amplitude limit is set by intrinsic, stochastic, low-frequency variability of approximately 0.1 mag. We marginally detect a slight modulation of the pulsation period similar in timescale to that observed in the Miras with meandering periods, but with a much lower period amplitude of +/-2 days. However, we do find clear evidence of a low-frequency power-law component in the Fourier spectrum of o Ceti's long-term light curve. The amplitude of this stochastic variability is approximately 0.1 mag at a period of 1000 days, and it exhibits a turnover for periods longer than this. This spectrum is similar to the red noise spectra observed in red supergiants.
Studying the Pulsation of Mira Variables in the Ultraviolet
Brian E. Wood,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/308838
Abstract: We present results from an empirical study of the Mg II h & k emission lines of selected Mira variable stars, using spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The stars all exhibit similar Mg II behavior during the course of their pulsation cycles. The Mg II flux always peaks after optical maximum near pulsation phase 0.2-0.5, although the Mg II flux can vary greatly from one cycle to the next. The lines are highly blueshifted, with the magnitude of the blueshift decreasing with phase. The widths of the Mg II lines are also phase-dependent, decreasing from about 70 km/s to 40 km/s between phase 0.2 and 0.6. We also study other UV emission lines apparent in the IUE spectra, most of them Fe II lines. These lines are much narrower and not nearly as blueshifted as the Mg II lines. They exhibit the same phase-dependent flux behavior as Mg II, but they do not show similar velocity or width variations.
Interpreting the Mg II h and k Line Profiles of Mira Variables
Brian E. Wood,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317131
Abstract: We use radiative transfer calculations to reproduce the basic appearance of Mg II lines observed from Mira variables. These lines have centroids that are blueshifted by at least 30 km/s from the stellar rest frame. It is unlikely that flow velocities in the stellar atmospheres are this fast, so radiative transfer effects must be responsible for this behavior. Published hydrodynamic models predict the existence of cool, downflowing material above the shocked material responsible for the Mg II emission, and we demonstrate that scattering in this layer can result in Mg II profiles as highly blueshifted as those that are observed. However, our models also show that scattering within the shock plays an equally strong role in shaping the Mg II profiles, and our calculations illustrate the importance of partial redistribution and the effects of being out of ionization equilibrium.
Smoking Quasars: a New Source for Cosmic Dust
Martin Elvis,Massimo Marengo,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/340006
Abstract: Although dust is widely found in astrophysics, forming dust is surprisingly difficult. The proper combination of low temperature (<2000 K) and high density is mainly found in the winds of late-type giant and supergiant stars which, as a result, are the most efficient sources of dust known. Dust ejected from these stars into the interstellar medium has multiple important effects, including obscuring background objects and enhancing star formation. We show here that quasars are also naturally copious producers of dust, if the gas clouds producing their characteristic broad lines are part of an outflowing wind. This offers an explanation for the strong link between quasars and dust, for the heavy nuclear obscuration around many quasars and introduces a new means of forming dust at early cosmological times.
An IR view of mass loss in Long Period Variables
Massimo Marengo,Margarita Karovska,Zeljko Ivezic
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We have investigated the mass loss processes in Long Period Variables, by combining radiative transfer modeling with mid-IR imaging and spectroscopic observations. We find a correlation between variability type and temporal variations in the mass loss rate. Mira variables are more likely to maintain constant mass loss rates over long period of time. Semiregular and Irregular variables are characterized by frequent interruptions in their mass loss rate, on timescales of ~100 yr. High resolution imaging of individual Long Period Variable sources show departures from spherical symmetry. We present the case of o Cet (Mira), in which the presence of a low mass companion plays an active role in shaping the circumstellar environment.
Distances on Cosmological Scales with VLTI
Margarita Karovska,Martin Elvis,Massimo Marengo
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1023/A:1026104932701
Abstract: We present here a new method using interferometric measurements of quasars, that allows the determination of direct geometrical distances on cosmic scales. Quasar Broad Emission Line Regions sizes provide a "meter rule" with which to measure the metric of the Universe. This method is less dependent of model assumptions, and even of variations in the fundamental constants (other than c). We discuss the spectral and spatial requirements on the VLTI observations needed to carry out these measurements.
Detection of H2 Emission from Mira B in UV Spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope
Brian E. Wood,Margarita Karovska,Warren Hack
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/322871
Abstract: We present ultraviolet spectra of Mira's companion star from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The companion is generally assumed to be a white dwarf surrounded by an accretion disk fed by Mira's wind, which dominates the UV emission from the system. The STIS UV spectrum is dominated by numerous, narrow H2 lines fluoresced by H I Ly-alpha, which were not detected in any of the numerous observations of Mira B by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The high temperature lines detected by IUE (e.g., C IV 1550) still exist in the STIS spectrum but with dramatically lower fluxes. The continuum fluxes in the STIS spectra are also much lower, being more than an order of magnitude lower than ever observed by IUE, and also an order of magnitude lower than fluxes observed in more recent HST Faint Object Camera objective prism spectra from 1995. Thus, the accretion rate onto Mira B was apparently much lower when STIS observed the star, and this change altered the character of Mira B's UV spectrum.
The Coronal Abundance Anomalies of M Dwarfs
Brian E. Wood,J. Martin Laming,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/76
Abstract: We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to First Ionization Potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called "FIP effect." For other stars, particularly very active ones, an "inverse FIP effect" is often observed, with low FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step towards modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.
CHEERS results on Mrk 573: Study of deep Chandra observations
Alessandro Paggi,Junfeng Wang,Giuseppina Fabbiano,Martin Elvis,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/756/1/39
Abstract: We present results on Mrk 573 obtained as part of the CHandra survey of Extended Emission-line Regions in nearby Seyfert galaxies (CHEERS). Previous studies showed that this source features a biconical emission in the soft X-ray band closely related with the Narrow Line Region as mapped by the [O iii] emission line and the radio emission, though on a smaller scale; we investigate the properties of soft X-ray emission from this source with new deep Chandra observations. Making use of the subpixel resolution of the Chandra/ACIS image and PSF-deconvolution, we resolve and study substructures in each ionizing cone. The two cone spectra are fitted with photoionization model, showing a mildly photoionized phase diffused over the bicone. Thermal collisional gas at about ~ 1.1 keV and ~ 0.8 keV appears to be located between the nucleus and the "knots" resolved in radio observations, and between the "arcs" resolved in the optical images, respectively; this can be interpreted in terms of shock interaction with the host galactic plane. The nucleus shows a significant flux decrease across the observations indicating variability of the AGN, with the nuclear region featuring higher ionization parameter with respect to the bicone region. The long exposure allows us to find extended emission up to ~ 7 kpc from the nucleus along the bicone axis. Significant emission is also detected in the direction perpendicular to the ionizing cones, disagreeing with the fully obscuring torus prescribed in the AGN unified model, and suggesting instead the presence of a clumpy structure.
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