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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4471 matches for " Margaret Wood "
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‘Closer to the ground’: Pupil ‘voice’ and the Development of Knowledge about Schools
Margaret Wood
Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry , 2011,
Abstract: Most pupils, if asked, might be expected to have a view about their school and increasingly the value and significance of including pupils’ perspectives in matters and decisions which affect them and their lives appears to be gaining recognition. The rationale for, and importance of, including the views and perceptions of those we have described as ‘closer to the ground’, namely the pupils, are asserted in this paper. The argument is advanced that pupils have an important role in helping to develop the knowledge base in schools about learning and the development of the school community. This is based on a belief that pupils have unique perspectives to offer and they deserve to be listened to when constructing our knowledge about schools. Drawing on metaphors from the literature of ‘bird’s eye’ and ‘worm’s eye’ perspectives on schools, the paper argues that knowledge has been traditionally constructed from the adult ‘bird’s eye’ view and that the view from closer to the ground, the ‘worm’s eye view’ must neither be overlooked nor constructed from an adult standpoint. A model for engaging ‘pupils as partners’, devised by a primary school in the City of York in England is examined. It is analysed and critiqued in the light of some of the issues surrounding pupil voice which are synthesised from the literature. The substantive argument made in this paper is that whilst the discourse about pupil ‘voice’ may often sound progressive, the language can be vague and imprecise and the practical applications varied. A case is therefore made for more rigour to infuse policy and planning in this field and in particular more clarity and precision in the application of concepts and use of terminology.
SVM-Based Prediction of Propeptide Cleavage Sites in Spider Toxins Identifies Toxin Innovation in an Australian Tarantula
Emily S. W. Wong, Margaret C. Hardy, David Wood, Timothy Bailey, Glenn F. King
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066279
Abstract: Spider neurotoxins are commonly used as pharmacological tools and are a popular source of novel compounds with therapeutic and agrochemical potential. Since venom peptides are inherently toxic, the host spider must employ strategies to avoid adverse effects prior to venom use. It is partly for this reason that most spider toxins encode a protective proregion that upon enzymatic cleavage is excised from the mature peptide. In order to identify the mature toxin sequence directly from toxin transcripts, without resorting to protein sequencing, the propeptide cleavage site in the toxin precursor must be predicted bioinformatically. We evaluated different machine learning strategies (support vector machines, hidden Markov model and decision tree) and developed an algorithm (SpiderP) for prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins. Our strategy uses a support vector machine (SVM) framework that combines both local and global sequence information. Our method is superior or comparable to current tools for prediction of propeptide sequences in spider toxins. Evaluation of the SVM method on an independent test set of known toxin sequences yielded 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, we sequenced five novel peptides (not used to train the final predictor) from the venom of the Australian tarantula Selenotypus plumipes to test the accuracy of the predictor and found 80% sensitivity and 99.6% 8-mer specificity. Finally, we used the predictor together with homology information to predict and characterize seven groups of novel toxins from the deeply sequenced venom gland transcriptome of S. plumipes, which revealed structural complexity and innovations in the evolution of the toxins. The precursor prediction tool (SpiderP) is freely available on ArachnoServer (http://www.arachnoserver.org/spiderP.htm?l), a web portal to a comprehensive relational database of spider toxins. All training data, test data, and scripts used are available from the SpiderP website.
Harnessing modern web application technology to create intuitive and efficient data visualization and sharing tools
Dylan Wood,Margaret King,Drew Landis,William Courtney,Jessica A. Turner,Vince D. Calhoun
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2014.00071
Abstract: Neuroscientists increasingly need to work with big data in order to derive meaningful results in their field. Collecting, organizing and analyzing this data can be a major hurdle on the road to scientific discovery. This hurdle can be lowered using the same technologies that are currently revolutionizing the way that cultural and social media sites represent and share information with their users. Web application technologies and standards such as RESTful webservices, HTML5 and high-performance in-browser JavaScript engines are being utilized to vastly improve the way that the world accesses and shares information. The neuroscience community can also benefit tremendously from these technologies. We present here a web application that allows users to explore and request the complex datasets that need to be shared among the neuroimaging community. The COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite) Data Exchange uses web application technologies to facilitate data sharing in three phases: Exploration, Request/Communication, and Download. This paper will focus on the first phase, and how intuitive exploration of large and complex datasets is achieved using a framework that centers around asynchronous client-server communication (AJAX) and also exposes a powerful API that can be utilized by other applications to explore available data. First opened to the neuroscience community in August 2012, the Data Exchange has already provided researchers with over 2500 GB of data.
Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories
Margaret D. King,Dylan Wood,William Courtney,Jessica A. Turner,Vince D. Calhoun
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2014.00060
Abstract: Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite). COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010; Scott et al., 2011). It was initially developed for the investigators at the Mind Research Network (MRN), but is now available to neuroimaging institutions worldwide. Self Assessment (SA) is an application embedded in the Assessment Manager (ASMT) tool in COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. Instruments (surveys) are created through ASMT and include many unique question types and associated SA features that can be implemented to help the flow of assessment administration. SA provides an instrument queuing system with an easy-to-use drag and drop interface for research staff to set up participants' queues. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at MRN. This data is only accessible by users that have explicit permission to access the data through their COINS user accounts and access to MRN network. This allows for high volume data collection and with minimal user access to PHI (protected health information). An added benefit to using COINS is the ability to collect, store and share imaging data and assessment data with no interaction with outside tools or programs. All study data collected (imaging and assessment) is stored and exported with a participant's unique subject identifier so there is no need to keep extra spreadsheets or databases to link and keep track of the data. Data is easily exported from COINS via the Query Builder and study portal tools, which allow fine grained selection of data to be exported into comma separated
Workplace mistreatment: Health, working environment and social and economic factors  [PDF]
Margaret Hodgins
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65057

Objective: To explore patterns of workplace mistreatment, relationships with health and with selected workplace, economic and social factors in 34 countries. Methods: Secondary data analysis of the European Working Conditions Survey. Results: Patterns of ill treatment (across occupational groups, and sectors) were broadly consistent with smaller, less representative studies. Prevalence was lower than many studies but corresponds with estimates of serious mistreatment. Mistreatment increases the risk of both physical and mental ill health and is associated with a range of work environment factors. Mistreatment is more prevalent in countries with smaller gender gaps, better performance on the GINI index for income inequality and for countries with specific anti-bullying legislation. Conclusions: Mistreatment in work is complex, and interventions are required at the level of the organization. Implementation issues need to be addressed, as specific anti-bullying legislation does not appear to provide sufficient protection.

Deriving the Kutta-Joukowsky Equation and Some of Its Generalizations Using Momentum Balances  [PDF]
D. H. Wood
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2011.11002
Abstract: Momentum balances are used to derive the Kutta-Joukowsky equation for an infinite cascade of aerofoils and an isolated aerofoil. These derivations are simpler than those based on the Blasius theorem or more complex unsteady control volumes, and show the close relationship between a single aerofoil and an infinite cascade. The modification of lift due to the presence of another lifting body is similarly derived for a wing in ground effect, a biplane, and tandem aerofoils. The results are identical to those derived from the vector form of the Kutta-Joukowsky equation.
Radiography of Clavicle Fractures— A Review of the Literature —Do Various Radiographic Views of Clavicle Fractures Affect the Management Plan?  [PDF]
Njalalle Baraza, Thomas Wood
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.43031

Introduction: Fractures of the clavicle are common and make up 5% - 10% of all fractures. Treatment options in part depend on the location of the fracture along the bone and degree of displacement. These two parameters are best determined by good quality, standardized radiographs of the clavicle. We reviewed the literature to determine the optimal radiographs of clavicle fractures and their influence on the treatment plan. Methods: A comprehensive search of Medline? database was undertaken with the following search terms and MeSH headings: clavicle, fractures, bone, radiography, and X-ray. We included articles in English published from 1950 to present. We ruled out fractures in children, fracture dislocations, open fractures, those with neurological and vascular injuries and fractures involving the acromioclavicular or sternoclavicular joints. Findings: Of the 821 citations obtained, only four studies proved eligible. In the most pertinent, four orthopaedic surgeons were shown standard views (antero-posterior and 20° cephalic tilt) of 50 clavicle fractures and then additional two views (45° cephalic and caudal tilt), and found that alternative views influenced their decision making, with more surgeons opting for surgical fixation. In a different study, it was shown that orthogonal views of the clavicle increased surgeons’ understanding and improved their treatment of these fractures. The third paper was a case series on clavicle fractures that were missed on the initial antero-posterior radiograph, and the fourth paper postulated that postero-anterior views of the thorax were most accurate in determining length of the clavicle. Conclusion: Studies showing an optimal view for assessment of clavicle fractures with a decision to then progressing to operative fixation are few, but the evidence points towards surgical fixation when alternative views of mid-shaft clavicle fractures are present.

The Effects of Psychological Skills Training on Mental Toughness and Psychological Well-Being of Student-Athletes  [PDF]
Jim Golby, Phillippa Wood
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76092

This study examined the effects of a psychological skills intervention (PST) designed to enhance the mental toughness and psychological well-being of student-athlete rowers (N = 16). Within this context, PWB was conceptualized by an amalgamation of the following psychological constructs; self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy, positive affect and dispositional optimism. Progress was examined at three times evenly dispersed over the course of the six-month intervention, pre-, mid- and post-intervention. The intervention was solution-focused and informed by Dweck’s (2009) theory of a growth mindset and Goldberg’s (1998) psychological strategies to develop mental toughness. The study design was a 2 (group) × 3 (time) two-way MANOVA with repeated measures on one factor (time). Various measures of mental toughness and positive psychological constructs were utilised. Over the course of the intervention, MT significantly improved, in addition to perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem and positive affect. Positive significant relationships were observed between components of MT and each of the positive measures; which lends support to the conceptualization of MT as a positive psychological construct which fosters positive psychological states (Clough & Strycharczyk, 2012). Further research is warranted to examine the development of MT on negative psychological constructs.

Assessing the Impacts of Sea Level Rise Using Existing Data  [PDF]
Frederick Bloetscher, Michael Wood
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.49012
Abstract: Local communities want to know the cost of improvements needed to their drainage system based on projected sea level rise. Prior research demonstrates that in coastal areas, groundwater will rise with sea level. As a result the combination of groundwater levels and tidal data must be used to predict local impacts of sea level rise on the drainage system. However, it would appear to complicate the situation if the amount of data available for making sea level rise projections with groundwater is limited. The objectives of this task were to identify available data in a data limited community, compare the available data, assess the impact of sea level rise on the community, and its impact on the stormwater system, identify vulnerable areas in the City, provide an estimate of long-term costs for improvements, and provide a toolbox of strategies to employ at the appropriate time. The project was conducted using ArcGIS tools to import tidal, groundwater, topographic LiDAR and infrastructure improvements into GIS software and performing analysis based on current data. The cost of improvements was based on applying actual 2015 construction costs in the subject comments across a larger vulnerable area. It was found that the data sources provided similar results, despite different timelines and dates so did not interfere with the subsequent analysis. The data revealed that over $400 million in current dollars might be needed to address stormwater issues arising from sea level rise before 2100.
An Epidemiologic Review of Enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana: Shifting Patterns of Resistance in an HIV Endemic Region
Jack S. Rowe,Samir S. Shah,Stephen Motlhagodi,Margaret Bafana,Ephraim Tawanana,Hong T. Truong,Sarah M. Wood,Nicola M. Zetola,Andrew P. Steenhoff
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010924
Abstract: The epidemiology of diarrheal disease in Botswana, an HIV endemic region, is largely unknown. Our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.
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