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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3616 matches for " Margaret Walsh "
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Risk Assessment and Clinical Risk Management for Young Antisocial Children: The Forgotten Group / Evaluación del riesgo y manejo del riesgo clínico en jóvenes antisociales: el grupo olvidado
Leena Augimeri,Margaret Walsh,Sarah Woods,Depeng Jiang
Universitas Psychologica , 2012,
Abstract: Centre for Children Committing Offences (CCCO), at Child Development Institute (CDI) in Toronto, Canada, developed Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL-20B for boys; EARL-21G for girls), for young children at-risk for future criminality. In this first EARL prospective longitudinal study, 573 boys and 294 girls who participated in SNAP , a gender-specific evidencebased model for at-risk children (6-11 years), 8.2% of boys and 3.1% of girls had registered criminal offences at follow up (mean age 14.9 and 14.6 respectively). EARL Total, Family, Child, and Responsivity domain scores, including two gender-specific risk items and Overall Clinical Judgment predicted early onset of criminal activity. Findings suggest that gender-sensitive clinical risk assessment and management tools are important for effectivelyidentifying and potentially reducing criminal outcomes
Physical Mistreatment in Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease
Carla VandeWeerd,Gregory J. Paveza,Margaret Walsh,Jaime Corvin
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/920324
Abstract:
Physical Mistreatment in Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease
Carla VandeWeerd,Gregory J. Paveza,Margaret Walsh,Jaime Corvin
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/920324
Abstract: Physical mistreatment has been estimated to affect 2 million older persons each year and dramatically affects health outcomes. While researchers have attempted to examine risk factors for specific forms of abuse, many have been able to focus on only victim or perpetrator characteristics, or a limited number of psychosocial variables at any one time. Additionally, data on risk factors for subgroups such as persons with Alzheimer’s disease who may have heightened and/or unique risk profiles has also been limited. This paper examines risk for physical violence in caregiver/patient dyads who participated in the Aggression and Violence in Community-Based Alzheimer’s Families Grant. Data were collected via in-person interview and mailed survey and included demographics as well as measures of violence, physical and emotional health, and health behaviors. Logistic regression analysis indicated that caregivers providing care to elders with high levels of functional impairment or dementia symptoms, or who had alcohol problems, were more likely to use violence as a conflict resolution strategy, as were caregivers who were providing care to elders who used violence against them. By contrast, caregivers with high self-esteem were less likely to use violence as a conflict resolution strategy. Significant interaction effects were also noted. 1. Introduction While child abuse has been recognized and studied in the literature in depth, in the past 30 years researchers have begun to recognize the vulnerability of older adults to this issue and to increase the scope of abuse research to include the study of mistreatment in older persons. Mistreatment of older adults has been associated with age and gender of victim [1–6] with the oldest old and women found to be at significant risk. It has been linked to domestic violence theories with spouses often found to be the most likely perpetrators [7–9]. Heightened risk has been linked to increased stress, with caregivers financial [10–12] or emotional dependence [9, 13–15], marital discord, and financial difficulties [16] increasing the likelihood that abuse will happen. Caregiver and care receiver isolation have also been associated with elder mistreatment [15, 17–20], as have inadequate exchange issues such as violence by care recipients [21–27] and poor caregiver/care receiver relationships [22, 26, 28–30]. Caregiver psychopathology such as substance abuse, depression [9, 31–36], and caregiver emotional problems [29, 31, 36, 37] have also been linked [36, 38, 39]. Care receiver cognitive impairment has recently received
Non-random walks in monkeys and humans
Denis Boyer,Margaret C. Crofoot,Peter D. Walsh
Quantitative Biology , 2011,
Abstract: Principles of self-organization play an increasingly central role in models of human activity. Notably, individual human displacements exhibit strongly recurrent patterns that are characterized by scaling laws and can be mechanistically modelled as self-attracting walks. Recurrence is not, however, unique to human displacements. Here we report that the mobility patterns of wild capuchin monkeys are not random walks and exhibit recurrence properties similar to those of cell phone users, suggesting spatial cognition mechanisms shared with humans. We also show that the highly uneven visitation patterns within monkey home ranges are not entirely self-generated but are forced by spatio-temporal habitat heterogeneities. If models of human mobility are to become useful tools for predictive purposes, they will need to consider the interaction between memory and environmental heterogeneities.
Patterns and correlates of tobacco control behavior among american association of pediatric dentistry members: a cross-sectional national study
Stuart A Gansky, Jennifer L Ryan, James A Ellison, Umo Isong, Arthur J Miller, Margaret M Walsh
BMC Oral Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-7-13
Abstract: A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors.Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 70% were willing to be trained. Less than two-thirds correctly answered any of four tobacco-related knowledge items. Over one-half agreed pediatric dentists should engage in tobacco control behaviors, but identified patient resistance as a barrier. About 24% of respondents reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 73% reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 37% of respondents always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling prepared to perform tobacco control behaviors (ORs = 1.9–2.8), a more positive attitude score (4 points) from 11 tobacco-related items (ORs = 1.5–1.8), and a higher statewide tobacco use prevalence significantly predicted performance of tobacco control behaviors.Findings suggest thatraining programs on tobacco use and dependence treatment in the pediatric dental setting may be needed to promote tobacco control behaviors for adolescent patients.Tobacco use, the single most preventable cause of premature disease and death in the United States [1], almost always begins during adolescence[2]. Every day in the U.S. more than 3000 youth under age 18 try their first cigarette[2]. It is estimated that half of these youths will become regular addicted smokers, and one-third will succumb to smoking related diseases[2]. Overall, 22% of high school students in the US currently smoke cigarettes and 11% of high school males use smokeless tobacco (i.e., oral snuff or chewing tobacco)[3].The National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommends all health professionals help patients be tobacco-free by ap
Workplace mistreatment: Health, working environment and social and economic factors  [PDF]
Margaret Hodgins
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65057
Abstract:

Objective: To explore patterns of workplace mistreatment, relationships with health and with selected workplace, economic and social factors in 34 countries. Methods: Secondary data analysis of the European Working Conditions Survey. Results: Patterns of ill treatment (across occupational groups, and sectors) were broadly consistent with smaller, less representative studies. Prevalence was lower than many studies but corresponds with estimates of serious mistreatment. Mistreatment increases the risk of both physical and mental ill health and is associated with a range of work environment factors. Mistreatment is more prevalent in countries with smaller gender gaps, better performance on the GINI index for income inequality and for countries with specific anti-bullying legislation. Conclusions: Mistreatment in work is complex, and interventions are required at the level of the organization. Implementation issues need to be addressed, as specific anti-bullying legislation does not appear to provide sufficient protection.

How “Commonsense” Notions of Race, Class and Gender Infiltrate Families Formed across the Color Line  [PDF]
Eileen T. Walsh
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.21010
Abstract: This research presents data from in-depth interviews of sixty adults in Southern California who have formed families across the black/white color line. In a societal context where normative family formation remains mono-racial, many adults in multiracial families manage their social performances to mitigate the stigma associated with their unusual family pattern or to challenge social expectations associated with race, class, and gender. Their stories reveal how they deploy strategic exaggerations of gender and stereotypes of social class in their day to day lives. These deployments operate to manage social interactions when confronting commonsense expectations about what it means to be a man or woman who trespasses the color line in family formation.
From Sexuality to Eroticism: The Making of the Human Mind  [PDF]
Ferdinand Fellmann, Rebecca Walsh
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2016.61002
Abstract: This paper proposes that the human mind in its creativity and emotional self-awareness is the result of the evolutionary transition from sexuality to eroticism. Eroticism is arrived at and defined by the high amount of energy displayed in animal sexuality. We propose that the unique human emotional intelligence is due to this “overflow” of mating energy. What from the survival viewpoint looks like an enormous waste of time and energy reveals itself to be an unexpected psychological benefit. The diversion of sexual energy from procreation—a process that results in erotic fantasies—turns intimacy into a source of human self-consciousness. This places different emphasis on the meaning of eroticism and provides a coherent scenario of mental development beyond mere cognitive capacities. Arguments are presented on how erotic imagination, or sexual excitation as an end in itself, promotes the human propensity for explorative curiosity; data from ethology, psychology, sociology, and neuroscience are presented to support these arguments. As philosophical anthropologists, we do not provide new empirical data, but the available results of comparative behavioral research confirm our hypothesis.
Modeling the Spatial Distribution and Fruiting Pattern of a Key Tree Species in a Neotropical Forest: Methodology and Potential Applications
Damien Caillaud,Margaret C. Crofoot,Samuel V. Scarpino,Patrick A. Jansen,Carol X. Garzon-Lopez,Annemarie J. S. Winkelhagen,Stephanie A. Bohlman,Peter D. Walsh
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015002
Abstract: The movement patterns of wild animals depend crucially on the spatial and temporal availability of resources in their habitat. To date, most attempts to model this relationship were forced to rely on simplified assumptions about the spatiotemporal distribution of food resources. Here we demonstrate how advances in statistics permit the combination of sparse ground sampling with remote sensing imagery to generate biological relevant, spatially and temporally explicit distributions of food resources. We illustrate our procedure by creating a detailed simulation model of fruit production patterns for Dipteryx oleifera, a keystone tree species, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama.
Experimental Investigation of Spoiler Deployment on Wing Stall  [PDF]
Scott Douglas Lindsay, Paul Walsh
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2018.83019
Abstract: Upper surface wing flaps, known as spoiler, are typically used to reduce lift and increase drag at touchdown; however spoilers have been shown to increase lift and reduce drag at near-stall conditions. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the spoilers’ impact on lift, drag, moment, and aerodynamic efficiency of a NACA 2412 airfoil at angles of attack (α) from 8 ° to 32 °. The experiment was conducted in the Ryerson Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (closed-circuit, 1 m × 1 m test section) at Re=783761, Ma=0.136. The lift coefficient (Cl), drag coefficient (Cd), moment coefficient about the quarter-chord (\"\") were captured with a changing spoiler deflection angle (δ) and spoiler length (b in percent chord). It was found that deflecting the spoiler resulted in an increase maximum lift of up to 2.497%. It was found that deflecting the spoiler by 8° was optimal for the b=10 cases. Any larger deflection reduced the lift gain, and a deflection of 25° caused the maximum lift to be 2.786% less than the clean configuration. In the b=15 case, δ=15° was optimal (1.760% maximum lift coefficient increase). The b=10 cases increased maximum lift coefficient between 0.35% and 2.10% higher than the b=15
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