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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2525 matches for " Margaret Lartey "
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Characteristics of adult tetanus in Accra
IFA Hesse, A Mensah, DK Asante, Margaret Lartey, A Neequaye
West African Journal of Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Tetanus is a life threatening infection with an estimated annual global incidence of about 1 million cases and a mortality of 50%. It is very common in developing countries. The prevalence in Ghana is not known, however, cases continue to be admitted in hospitals in the country. This retrospective study was undertaken to define the characteristics of cases of tetanus in adults admitted to the Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, from 1 January 1994 to 31 December, 2001. Methods: Information was extracted from the admission and discharge registers of the Isolation Unit of Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra and case notes were examined and analysed. Results: There were 158 (76.6%) males) cases of tetanus with mean age of 32.7 ± 15.0 years. The peak age was in the 20 –– 29 year group. Admission rate was lowest during the raining season months of June–August. Traumatic injury occurred outdoors (56.9%) and was caused by deep prick (24.3%), or cut (16.2%). The most common site of injury was on the lower (44.6%) limbs. The time interval between injury and admission was 8.3 ± 22.4 weeks (range 1 – 156 weeks) and the duration of symptoms was 2.9 ± 2.7 days (range 1.0 – 21.0 days). The most common presenting features were locked jaw (82.4%), general spasm (62.2%), presence of a wound (53.7%) and neck stiffness (50.0%). Hospital admission was 11.4 ± 11.6 (range 0 – 53) days. The case mortality was 50% (79/158). Conclusion: These results confirm that adult tetanus is still very prevalent in Ghana and is occurring in a younger age group compared to that in the developed countries. The case mortality is still very high.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Syphilis Prevalence and Risk Factors among Migrant Workers in Konongo, Ghana  [PDF]
Andrew A. Adjei, James Brandful, Mark Lurie, Margaret Lartey, Francis Krampa, Awewura Kwara, Theophilus K. Adiku, Yao Tettey, Richard K. Gyasi, Aaron L. Lawson, Timothy Flanigan
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.43020
Abstract: Migrant workers, particularly gold mining workers, have been identified as a group at risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). A cross-sectional study was undertaken on the correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis infections in a sample of migrants (Ghanaian citizens [156] and non-Ghanaian citizens [8]) working in a gold mining centres in Konongo, Ghana. The study was conducted between the months of January 2013 to December 2013. Of a total of 600 eligible migrant workers, only 164 (27.33%; males 114, females 50) of the eligible migrants took part in the study. Subjects voluntarily completed a risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimen for testing for the presence of antibodies to HIV and Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. The median age of the participants was 29.0 years (range 18 - 62 years). Of the 164 migrant workers tested, HIV and syphilis seroprevalence were 6.7% and 3.7% respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent determinants for HIV infection were being female [odds ratio (OR) 2.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI 0.86 - 10.0); unmarried (OR 10.13; 95% CI 1.2 - 81.09); drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 0.38 - 36.3); and blood transfusion (OR 2.45; 95% CI 0.27 - 22.37). Similarly, on multivariate analysis, the independent determinants for syphilis infection were having concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.16; 95% CI 0.38 - 12.12); and blood transfusion (OR 5.07; 95% CI 0.51 - 50.37). Consistent with similar studies worldwide, our results suggest high prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections among migrant workers who work in gold mining centres in Ghana.
Predicting Traffic Congestion: A Queuing Perspective  [PDF]
Jojo Desmond Lartey
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2014.22008
Abstract: Mobility is an indispensable activity of our daily lives and road transport is one popular approach to mobility. However road congestion occurrence can be irritating and costly. This work contributes to the modeling and therefore predicting road congestion of a Ghanaian urban road by way of queuing theory using stochastic process and initial value problem framework. The approach is used to describe performance measure parameters, allowing the prediction of the level of queue built up at a signalized intersection as an insight into road vehicular congestion there and how such congestion occurrence can be efficiently managed.
Steeping of Whole Dried Maize Seeds in Buffers Altered Fatty Acid Ionization State, Composition, and Lipase Activity  [PDF]
Raphael Lartey Abban, Justice Kwabena Sarfo
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.811071
Abstract:
Steeping is a simple model of studying the activation and modulation of the physiological pathways involved in seed germination. In this study, steeping of grains of the ‘obatanpa’ maize variety in buffers at different pH was monitored through the measurements of lipase activity, oil yield, fatty acid component and unsaturation, and germination capacity. Lipase activity of grains steeped for four days decreased in the order: pH 3 > pH 5 > pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11. Decreasing lipase activity was corroborated with decreasing free fatty acid components, protein concentrations and oil yields. The unsaturation components of the oil fractions only marginally increased with increasing steeping media pH. Three major components were detected by TLC in all oil fractions. The unique components were confirmed by their uniform UV-absorption spectra converging at an isosbestic point of 290 nm. Germination capacity was much reduced for seeds steeped in buffered media for 24 hours compared with seeds steeped in portable water though the pattern of germination, which was monitored for five days, did not change. This study has demonstrated the use of pH changes of steeping medium to modulate physicochemical properties and germination of seeds. The physicochemical changes were observed after seeds have been submerged under steeping buffer for four days. Practical application: With proliferation of specialty maize hybrids, the study provides an insight into the development of experimental protocols for the selection of types of maize grain for preparation of foods and beverages in terms of general characterization and lipolytic activity, which have implications for flavor, taste and odor of the final products. The imminence of this in some traditional ways of preparing malted and fermented maize foods and beverages, which go through days of steeping, cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore provides another dimension to the manipulation of the steeping stage to develop varieties of maize-based product.
Antenatal care and pregnancy outcome in Ghana, the importance of women\'s education
FA Tayie, A Lartey
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2008,
Abstract: The antenatal characteristics of 503 pregnant women attending maternal and child health clinics in Accra were studied to ascertain the influence of antenatal care on pregnancy outcome. Gestation age of first antenatal care attendance, duration of nutrients supplementation during pregnancy, infant birth-weight and level of education in relation to seeking early antenatal care were studied. A sub-sample comprising 128 were selected for a longitudinal study which assessed monthly haemoglobin concentration of the pregnant women when they reported for antenatal care. Results showed that the level of educational of the pregnant women was important in seeking early antenatal care. Higher educational level associated with early antenatal care attendance. Majority of the subjects attended antenatal care in the 3rd month of pregnancy. The average birth-weight of infants delivered by the 503 pregnant women was 3.02 ± 0.45 kg and the prevalence of low birth-weight (birthweight < 2.5 kg) was 8.3%. Pregnant women who sought antenatal care before the end of the 3rd month delivered infants whose birth-weights were significantly better compared to those who sought care later (3.08 ± 0.44 vs 2.85 ± 0.46 kg, respectively, P < 0.0001). Those who received antenatal care before the end of the 3rd month had on average 3.2 times (95% CI: 1.9 – 5.2, P < 0.0001) better chance of giving birth to a normal weight infant. Pregnant women who received antenatal care and were on multivitamin and mineral supplements for more than 5 months had infants who weighed better than those who received care for lesser duration (3.04 ± 0.44 vs 2.88 ± 0.55 kg, respectively P < 0.0001). The longitudinal haemoglobin study showed an average haemoglobin concentration of 11.5 ± 0.6 g/dL, n = 128. The anaemia rate among the pregnant women ranged from 24 - 38% depending on gestation age. Early antenatal care was associated with significant improvement in haemoglobin concentration (r = +0.35, P < 0.0001, n = 128). It was concluded that early antenatal care is crucial to favourable outcome of pregnancy in this population.
Visual damage following direct sighting of solar eclipse in Ghana
S Lartey, GK Amedofu
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: A study was carried out at the department of Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital/School of Medical Sciences, at Kumasi Ghana from March 29th to May 29th 2006 to study visual acuity changes in patients suspected of solar eclipse retinopathy after they viewed an eclipse of the sun on 29th March 2006. In all, seven patients with eye complaints were seen. Examination included assessment of Visual Acuity (VA), Slit Lamp examination, Fundoscopy, Amsle Test, Intra-ocular pressure evaluation and Goldman\'s Tonometre Test. Six patients had normal visual acuity while only one had VA of 6/24 in both eyes, which was corrected. All patients had normal colour vision and normal Amlser grid. None of them had any evidence of Maculopathy. 3 patients had superficial punctuate Keratitis. The absence of solar burns of the macular observed in the region is indicative of the effectiveness of mass public education concerning the damaging effects of the solar eclipse. Advanced techniques, such as scanning laser Ophthalmoscopy and the multifocal electroretinography (ERG) offer the possibility of detailed examination of small retina lesions in Ghana after an eclipse of the sun. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 160-163
Dynamics of Soil Flora and Fauna in Biological Control of Soil Inhabiting Plant Pathogens
Robert T. Lartey
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The cropland soil, which is comprised of spermosphere, rhizosphere and bulk soil, is populated by a wide array of microbial inhabitants. These microbial inhabitants include the flora, represented by bacteria, actinomyces, archaea, fungi and algae and the fauna, such as protozoa, nematodes, Acarids and Collembola. These organisms consist of saprophytes, pathogens of plants and antagonists of other soil microbes, including some plant pathogens. The success of crops may be influenced directly by stimulation of their growth and indirectly by variety of interactions among these microbial inhabitants. These interactions may result in negative plant growth by causing a variety of diseases, positive plant growth through mutual benefits or no stimulation on plant growth through neutral effects. In addition, interactions also occur among these cropland microbial populations which also influences the health of crops. The most important of these, with regard to crop health is the antagonistic interactions between beneficial microbial inhabitants and pathogens which could impact biological control efficacy. Therefore, successful development of a biological control system against soil inhabiting plant pathogens requires good knowledge of the composition of the microbial inhabitants and an understanding of the interactive functions of microflora and fauna in the soil.
Unification, the Big Bang, and the Cosmological Constant
Edward Tetteh-Lartey
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: The two major goals in fundamental physics are: 1) Unification of all forces incorporating relativity and quantum theory, 2) Understanding the origin and evolution of the Universe as well as explaining the smallness of the cosmological constant. Several efforts have been made in the last few decades towards achieving these goals with some successes and failures. The current best theory we have for unification of all forces is Superstring/M Theory. However current evidence suggests our Universe is flat and accelerating. A Universe with a positive cosmological constant will have serious implications for string theory since the S-Matrix cannot be well defined and Superstring/M Theory is only formulated in flat Minkowski background. Holographic principle provides a way out as shown by the AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence, but it remains to be proved if it is valid for our non-conformal, non-supersymmetric Universe. Aside from the issue of defining M-Theory in a de Sitter background, why the cosmological constant is so small remains puzzling and needs to be understood. The ``cosmological constant problem'' has brought physics to a standstill towards any major development and remains currently the most disturbing issue. Conventional big bang cosmology has not yet produced a satisfactory explanation of the small value of the cosmological constant. An attempt by SuperString/M Theory in this direction is given by the Ekpyrotic/Cyclic model. The aim of this review is not to introduce any new concepts not already known, but give an overview of current state of affairs in high energy physics, highlighting some successes and failures and making some few suggestions on areas to focus to resolve some of these outstanding issues.
Determinants of Bank Deposits in Ghana: Does Interest Rate Liberalization Matters?  [PDF]
Eric Kofi Boadi, Yao Li, Victor Curtis Lartey
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.69094
Abstract: This research paper examines the effect of interest rate liberalization on bank deposits in a developing country Ghana. A deposit function model was specified with long term deposit as the main dependent variable with real savings rate, real treasury bill rate, exchange rate movement and gross domestic product as independent variables while controlling for inflation. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method was used to estimate the specified model which covered seasonally adjusted quarterly data drawn from Bank of Ghana and Ghana Statistical Service. The data were input into a spreadsheet and exported into Econometric View 7 which was used for processing the data. The results of the study revealed that the interest rate liberalization and gross domestic product jointly accounted for about 78% of the variation in the level of bank savings deposits in Ghana. The study has also shown that the liberalization of the interest rates has made it attractive for people with idle funds to save with financial institutions especially the banks. It also revealed a negative relationship between real savings rate and the real treasury bill rate expected in a high inflationary environment. All the independent variables were significant. It is therefore recommended that the Bank of Ghana remains resilience on interest rate liberalization so that surplus funds can be made available for investors and also to reduce the level of inflation in Ghana.
Risk Factors for Buruli Ulcer in Ghana—A Case Control Study in the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and Akuapem South Districts of the Eastern Region
Ernest Kenu ,Kofi Mensah Nyarko,Linda Seefeld,Vincent Ganu,Michael K?ser,Margaret Lartey,Benedict Nii Laryea Calys-Tagoe,Kwodwo Koram,Richard Adanu,Oliver Razum,Edwin Afari,Fred N. Binka
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003279
Abstract: Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact mode of transmission is not known. Previous studies have identified demographic, socio-economic, health and hygiene as well as environment related risk factors. We investigated whether the same factors pertain in Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar (SKC) and Akuapem South (AS) Districts in Ghana which previously were not endemic for BU. Methods We conducted a case control study. A case of BU was defined as any person aged 2 years or more who resided in study area (SKC or AS District) diagnosed according to the WHO clinical case definition for BU and matched with age- (+/?5 years), gender-, and community controls. A structured questionnaire on host, demographic, environmental, and behavioural factors was administered to participants. Results A total of 113 cases and 113 community controls were interviewed. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified presence of wetland in the neighborhood (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.9–8.2), insect bites in water/mud (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 2.5–13.1), use of adhesive when injured (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1–6.8), and washing in the Densu river (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1–4.96) as risk factors associated with BU. Rubbing an injured area with alcohol (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.008–0.57) and wearing long sleeves for farming (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.14–0.62) showed protection against BU. Conclusion This study identified the presence of wetland, insect bites in water, use of adhesive when injured, and washing in the river as risk factors for BU; and covering limbs during farming as well as use of alcohol after insect bites as protective factors against BU in Ghana. Until paths of transmission are unraveled, control strategies in BU endemic areas should focus on these known risk factors.
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