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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 188357 matches for " Marg? Gomes de Oliveira; "
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Evaluation of rational use of antimicrobial agents in a Brazilian intensive care unit  [PDF]
Fabiana Xavier Cartaxo Salgado, Tarquino Erastides Gavilanes Sanchez, Noriberto Barbosa da Silva, Hildeamo Bonifácio Oliveira, Mauro Karnikowski, MargGomes de Oliveira Karnikowski
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.62028
Abstract: The present study sought to assess the rational use of antimicrobial agents in a Brazilian intensive care unit (ICU) and its association with antimicrobial resistance in elderly patients admitted to the unit. Results: Choice of empiric and sensitivity-guided therapy was inadequate in > 80% and 59% of cases respectively. Inadequate antimicrobial therapy, whether empiric or sensitivity-guided, was positively correlated with bacterial resistance (r = 0.316; p = 0.001). Sensitivity testing revealed a 46.5% resistance rate to eight out of the ten most commonly used antibiotics. Multiple drug-resistant organisms were found in 40.8% of patients. A significant increase was observed in the number of multidrug-resistant samples between 2006/2007 and 2008 (r = 0.41, p = 0.006), (r = 0.598, p = 0.001), (r = 0.688, p = 0.00). Conclusion: We found a high rate of antibiotic misuse in the study sample. Inadequate therapy was correlated with resistance to antimicrobial agents.
Dimensions of Access to Antihypertensive Medications in Ceilandia, Distrito Federal, Brazil  [PDF]
Fabiana Xavier Cartaxo Salgado, Dayani Galato, Gislane Ferreira de Melo, Marileusa Dosolina Chiarello, Aline Gomes de Oliveira, Letícia Farias Gerlack, Micheline Marie Milward de Azevedo Meiners, MargGomes de Oliveira Karnikowski
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.711165
Abstract: Access can be understood as the sum of a number of elements of the interface between patients and the health care system. This study took a comprehensive approach to the dimensions of access to medications, employing indicators to evaluate the dimensions of access to antihypertensive medications in Ceilandia, DF, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study, administering questionnaires during home visits. The survey covered epidemiological and socioeconomic profiles, behavioral habits and the dimensions of access to antihypertensive medications comprising physical, financial, and geographic availability and accept ability according to the hypertensive population of Ceilandia. The total sample comprised 400 individuals and the hypertensive subset numbered 140 (35%). Indicators of physical availability of medications revealed that users found it difficult to acquire their drugs on almost one third of occasions and in some cases were unable to access any of these products. The greatest barriers to access were reported by users of pharmacies belonging to the Brazilian National Health Service (SUS) and on the “People’s Pharmacies” network. More than one third of the hypertensive sample spent their own money on medications they could not find at these pharmacies. The majority of the hypertensive subsets were overweight/obese, a minority engaged in physical activity and 40% were smokers/ex-smokers. More women reduced their salt intake. Men had higher incomes, educational level, and socioeconomic status. Failure to keep the public health care system supplied has prejudiced access to essential medications for hypertension treatment, transferring the costs onto users. This population has lifestyle habits that increase the risk of exacerbation of hypertension. These results reveal a need for effective public policies to ensure access to antihypertensive medications and involve users of the health care system in changing their habits and behaviors in order to achieve adequate and lasting control of systemic arterial hypertension.
A terapia medicamentosa no idoso: cuidados na medica??o
Nóbrega,Otávio de Tolêdo; Karnikowski,MargGomes de Oliveira;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232005000200008
Abstract: medical literature points out that ageing predisposes to a greater consumption of prescription and "over the counter" medicines. however, physiological changes related to aging such as modification of body composition and reduction of the renal and hepatic functions may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of several drugs, rendering elderly people susceptible to much more intense adverse or therapeutic effects. in this scenario, the medical literature has been continuously enriched with studies pointing out explicit medications or medications categories that should be generally avoided or used with caution by older adults. this work has the purpose of briefly describing a few, consensual information on these inappropriate drugs for the elderly, addressing some active principles available for the brazilian population.
Pattern of drugs prescribed for community-residing middle-aged and older adults from the outskirts of Brasília
Nóbrega, Otávio de Tolêdo;Melo, Gislane Ferreira;Karnikowski, MargGomes de Oliveira;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-93322005000200016
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the medication prescribed for a group of middle-aged and older adults that reside in the outskirts of brasilia and practice physical exercises regularly at a local university. this analysis considered qualitative and quantitative aspects of the medications prescribed to subjects aged 54 to 81 years-old, including their appropriateness and compliance to the brazilian essential drug list. the units of analysis consisted in each single medication and each individual subject. among the one hundred twenty-one individuals interviewed, 19.7% declared not to take any medicine whereas the remaining 80.3% revealed to use an average of 3.2 drugs. among all drugs consumed, 98.1% consisted of physician prescribed medications, being antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory and analgesic products the most frequent therapeutic classes. consumption of drugs that should be generally avoided by elderly was found not to vary significantly according to age strata, having nonetheless increased (p < 0.05) according to the amount of drugs prescribed. overall, the group investigated exhibited a homogeneous pattern of drug usage since either the mean general consumption or consumption of particular drug subsets displayed no statistically significant differences related to gender, age, schooling or income. our findings also indicate a lack of agreement between medications prescribed and the brazilian cast of essential drugs.
An estimation of the frequency of gestational toxoplasmosis in the Brazilian Federal District
Nóbrega, Otávio de Tolêdo;Karnikowski, MargGomes de Oliveira;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822005000400018
Abstract: acute infections by the protozoan toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy (gestational toxoplasmosis) are known to cause serious health problems to the fetus (congenital toxoplasmosis). in brasília, there have been few studies on the incidence of toxoplasmosis. this report summarizes a retrospective study performed on 2,636 selected pregnant women attended by the public health system of guará, a satellite-city of brasília. in this survey, 17 cases of gestational toxoplasmosis were detected; 15 of which were primary maternal infection and the remaining 2 were consistent with secondary maternal infection. these results suggest an annual seroconversion rate of 0.64 percent (90 percent confidence interval: 0.38, 0.90).
An estimation of the frequency of gestational toxoplasmosis in the Brazilian Federal District
Nóbrega Otávio de Tolêdo,Karnikowski MargGomes de Oliveira
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: Acute infections by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy (gestational toxoplasmosis) are known to cause serious health problems to the fetus (congenital toxoplasmosis). In Brasília, there have been few studies on the incidence of toxoplasmosis. This report summarizes a retrospective study performed on 2,636 selected pregnant women attended by the public health system of Guará, a satellite-city of Brasília. In this survey, 17 cases of gestational toxoplasmosis were detected; 15 of which were primary maternal infection and the remaining 2 were consistent with secondary maternal infection. These results suggest an annual seroconversion rate of 0.64 percent (90 percent confidence interval: 0.38, 0.90).
Albuminemia e terapia medicamentosa no prognóstico de idosos hospitalizados
Salgado, Fabiana Xavier Cartaxo;Vianna, Lucy Gomes;Giavoni, Adriana;Melo, Gislane Ferreira de;Karnikowski, MargGomes de Oliveira;
Revista da Associa??o Médica Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-42302010000200010
Abstract: objective: this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum albumin levels, drugs used, length of hospitalization and number of diseases with the prognosis of hospitalized elderly. methods: a descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out using a review of medical charts. variables collected were disease motivating admission, albumin, drugs used and their affinity for albumin and length of stay in an elderly population of a brazilian public hospital. we used multiple regression to assess whether age, length of stay, medication with or without affinity to albumin and number of drugs motivating admission were causes of death. the relation between dependent and independent variables was analyzed by two-way anova. results: the sample consisted of 277 elderly, 151 with hypoalbuminemia and those using an average of 6.6 ± 3.80 different prescription drugs most of which had affinity for albumin (4.96 ± 2.64). results showed that the number of drugs with affinity for albumin and hospital stay were predictors of death (r = 0.47, r2 = 0.224), (f(8.170) = 6.13; p=0.001). the relation between dependent and independent variables resulted in the mathematical equation: (death= 0.545 - 0.374 (albumin) - 0.195 (days of hospitalization) + 0.175 (number of drugs with affinity for albumin)). conclusion: the mathematical equation obtained by this study demonstrated that albumin and days of hospitalization were inversely correlated with death and directly correlated with the number of drugs bound to albumin.
Envelhecimento tireoidiano: Aspectos fisiológicos e patológicos
Silveira Tavares,Fernanda; Bueno Tavares,Adriano; Nóbrega,Otávio de Toledo; Karnikowski,MargGomes de Oliveira;
Interciencia , 2009,
Abstract: population aging is a prominent worldwide phenomenon. in brazil, it is expressed by demographic and epidemiologic transitions. aging can be defined as a physiological process of living beings, slow and continuous, leading to a gradual reduction of the functional reserve of the different organs and systems. many theories exist about the mechanisms of aging; however, none of them, separately, explains the complexity of that biological process. although aging is considered to be "normal", the limit between the physiological and pathological process is often controversial. in this paper, the consequences of aging on the thyroid gland and its hormone production reduction are discussed, attempting to establish what could be considered as an adaptative process and, therefore, physiological, and what would be in fact pathological, meriting therapeutical intervention.
Polymyositis: clinical investigation in two sisters
Karnikowski, MargGomes de Oliveira;Costa, Bruno Rodrigues Veloso;Osella, Oscar Francisco Sanchez;Nóbrega, Otávio de Tolêdo;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2002000400020
Abstract: we present an investigation of a case of polymyositis affecting two sisters of one same parenthood. their cases have been documented for almost two decades, being investigated by means of a diagnostic protocol which combined clinical findings as well as laboratorial, histopathological and image tests. in both cases, clinical manifestations started in childhood, without signs of involvement of the central and peripheral nervous system. both patients proved to respond to a therapeutics based on corticosteroids. the degree of relatedness between their parents corroborate the notion that genetic factors may contribute to the development of the disease.
Polymyositis: clinical investigation in two sisters
Karnikowski MargGomes de Oliveira,Costa Bruno Rodrigues Veloso,Osella Oscar Francisco Sanchez,Nóbrega Otávio de Tolêdo
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2002,
Abstract: We present an investigation of a case of polymyositis affecting two sisters of one same parenthood. Their cases have been documented for almost two decades, being investigated by means of a diagnostic protocol which combined clinical findings as well as laboratorial, histopathological and image tests. In both cases, clinical manifestations started in childhood, without signs of involvement of the central and peripheral nervous system. Both patients proved to respond to a therapeutics based on corticosteroids. The degree of relatedness between their parents corroborate the notion that genetic factors may contribute to the development of the disease.
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