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Esteetilise suhtumise m iste N ukogude Eesti esteetikas. The Concept of Aesthetic Approach in Soviet Estonian Aesthetics
Marek Volt
Methis : Studia humaniora Estonica , 2011,
Abstract: This nostalgic yet analytic article discusses the topic of aesthetic approach in the aesthetic literature of Soviet Estonia (authors Borev, Kagan, Stolovich and others). Firstly, the aesthetic approach engages man’s creative/reshaping activities in relation to the world (following Marx’s slogan that ’man also produces in accordance with the laws of beauty’). Secondly, an artistic meaning can be distinguished, followed by a third, the subjective aesthetic meaning, which indicates the actual application of aesthetic categories (such as ’beauty’, ’sublimity’, etc.). Since the subjective aesthetic meaning is fundamental in relation to the other meanings, the article focuses on the specific characterisation of this category. The first important characteristic is the appraisability, which is born from the usage of the categories; the number of categories has been subject to historical change, reflecting the development of man’s aesthetic approach. Aesthetic approach was mainly defined through the five conditions (sensuousness, direct contact with the concrete object, selflessness, and the appraisal of the object in comparison with the ideal). Analysis of the aesthetic approach in a historical dialectic relation to theoretical, utilitarian and ethical approaches indicates that aesthetical feelings only arose towards the end of the Paleolithic era. Peoples on a lower developmental level didn’t know of aesthetic appraisal, or their aesthetic appraisals were still very closely connected with the utilitaristic. Even though all approaches at times are exhibited in their ‘pure’ forms, Soviet aesthetics generally held to the opinion that they arose simultaneously in daily practice and were intertwined with one another. The societal and practical meanings are what constitute the aesthetic approach – meaning that they define what man will begin to consider beautiful (in its more radical forms, this meant reducing the beauty of an object to its usefulness), but they also affect the nature of existing aesthetic objects. An example typical of that time: relations of private property transforms a beautiful object into its opposite (a beautiful pearl found by a poor fisherman can become an ugly grey nodule due to the afflictions caused by a world ruled by selfishness). In analysing the Soviet aesthetical concept of aesthetic approach and how it differs from the corresponding notion in the ’nations of Western capitalism’, I point to the neutral appraisal of aesthetic approach in Western ethics and the fact that the aesthetic approach has been relatively unaffected by individ
“Secularization” or Plurality of Meaning Structures? A. Schutz’s Concept of a Finite Province of Meaning and the Question of Religious Rationality  [PDF]
Marek Chojnacki
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22014
Abstract: Referring to basic Weberian notions of rationalization and secularization, I try to find a more accurate sense of the term “secularization”, intending to describe adequately the position of religion in modernity. The result of this query is—or at least should be—a new, original conceptualization of religion as one of finite provinces of meaning within one paramount reality of the life-world, as defined by Alfred Schutz. I proceed by exposing a well known, major oversimplification of the Weberian concept of secularization, very well outlined in Peter Berger’s The sacred canopy, in order to point to the genuine, much more differentiated position of Max Weber in this matter (especially from the period of Foundations of social economic and Economy and society), and, consequently, to return to the roots of Berger’s thought: phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schutz, an attempt to assure the philosophical foundations of Weber’s sociological theory. At a closer glimpse, transformation of religion in the modern process of rationalization does not consist—according to Weber—in eliminating religion and thus depriving society of the religious source of meaning, but in parallel emancipation of many different domains of rationality, including religion itself. Using Schutz’s analysis of the social world as a complex structure of many different final provinces of meaning, I describe religion as such a province and show what does the process of rationalization of this province consist and what it should consist in: a complex, ongoing exchange of cognitive relevances and contents, combined with growing autonomy of many different sub-worlds. Schutz’s theory of symbol, rooted in Edmund Husserl’s description of constitution of complex objects in mono- and polythetic acts of consciousness, moves the analysis to the epistemological level, pointing to a chance of intensifying our cognitive relation to reality through increasing interpenetration of various sub-universes of meaning.
The Microstructure and Oxidation Resistance of The Microstructure and Oxidation Resistance of Slurry Method on Rene 80 Superalloy  [PDF]
Marek Goral
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.117058
Abstract: The slurry method is one of the oldest techniques of deposition of aluminide coating on the nickel superalloy, titanium alloys and steel. It is characterized by relatively low costs of its realisation and necessary equipment. This method en-ables a simple modification of chemical composition of the coating through addition of different powders. The author showed study on the possibility of modification of the Al-Si slurry chemical composition used for aluminide coating deposition by addition of MeCrAlY powder. The slurry was deposited by immersion than the diffusion treatment at 950℃ for two hours was applied. The thickness of obtained coatings was in the range of 30 - 65 μm.
Object Identification in Dynamic Images Based on the Memory-Prediction Theory of Brain Function  [PDF]
Marek Bundzel, Shuji Hashimoto
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2010.24024
Abstract: In 2004, Jeff Hawkins presented a memory-prediction theory of brain function, and later used it to create the Hierar-chical Temporal Memory model. Several of the concepts described in the theory are applied here in a computer vision system for a mobile robot application. The aim was to produce a system enabling a mobile robot to explore its envi-ronment and recognize different types of objects without human supervision. The operator has means to assign names to the identified objects of interest. The system presented here works with time ordered sequences of images. It utilizes a tree structure of connected computational nodes similar to Hierarchical Temporal Memory and memorizes frequent sequences of events. The structure of the proposed system and the algorithms involved are explained. A brief survey of the existing algorithms applicable in the system is provided and future applications are outlined. Problems that can arise when the robot’s velocity changes are listed, and a solution is proposed. The proposed system was tested on a sequence of images recorded by two parallel cameras moving in a real world environment. Results for mono- and ste-reo vision experiments are presented.
On El Naschie’s Fractal-Cantorian Space-Time and Dark Energy—A Tutorial Review  [PDF]
Leila Marek-Crnjac
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.713058
Abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the work of the outstanding Egyptian theoretical physicist and engineering scientist Prof. Mohamed El Naschie. Every physics student knows the well-known Einstein’s mass-energy equation, E=mc2, but unfortunately for physics, few know El Naschie’s modification, E(O)=mc2/22, and El Naschie’s dark energy equation E(D)=mc2(21/22) although this new insight has truly far reaching implications. This paper gives a short tutorial review of El Naschie’s fractal-Cantorian space-time as well as dark energy. Emphasis is put on the fundamental concept of Cantor set, fractal dimensions, zero set, empty set, and Casimir effect.
Niedo ywienie bia kowo-kaloryczne u dzieci - nowe elementy w patofizjologii
Andrzej Marek,Krzysztof Marek
Pediatria Wspó?czesna , 2002,
Abstract: Niedo ywienie bia kowo-kaloryczne (nb-k) jest powa nym problemem zdrowotnym dotycz cym dzieci nie tylko z krajów rozwijaj cych si . Równie w krajach rozwini tych nb-k nierzadko stanowi element obrazu klinicznego schy kowych stanów wielu schorzeń przewlek ych, jak równie stanów ostrych przebiegaj cych z nasileniem katabolizmu. Powoduj c w wielu narz dach zaburzenia strukturalne i czynno ciowe, ogranicza ich wydolno , staj c si przyczyn zró nicowanych konsekwencji - upo ledza rozwój dziecka, redukuje mo liwo ci obronne ustroju, zw aszcza swoist komórkow odpowied immunologiczn , jest przyczyn wielogruczo owej dysfunkcji hormonalnej, powoduje liczne nieprawid owo ci metaboliczne, obni aj c podstawow przemian materii, ograniczaj c wiele procesów anabolicznych i nasilaj c reakcje katabolicz-ne, zmienia farmakokinetyk wielu leków, zmuszaj c do modyfikowania sposobu ich stosowania a zak ócaj c homeostaz oksydacyjno-antyoksydacyjn nb-k staje si przyczyn dysfunkcji wielu narz dów. W pracy przedstawiono pogl dy na temat klasyfikacji nb-k oraz nowe, poznane w ostatnim 10-leciu, elementy patofizjologii nb-k, z uwzgl dnieniem jego niekorzystnego wp ywu na przebieg schorzenia podstawowego, któremu towarzyszy.
Automatic Classification of Nouns into Semantic Groups Using a Corpus of Text
Marek Gajecki,Marek Krezolek
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: This article presents a method of classification of nouns into semantic groups based on statistical inference. The algorithm uses the inflectional dictionary of the Polish language and a corpus of texts to analyse adjective-noun relationships. The semantic groups are consistent with the categorization in the WordNet dictionary. The classification of nouns into semantic groups is a small step towards constructing a semantic dictionary for the Polish language.
Kovalevski exponents and integrability properties in class A homogeneous cosmological models
Marek Szydlowski,Marek Biesiada
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.2991/jnmp.2002.9.1.1
Abstract: Qualitative approach to homogeneous anisotropic Bianchi class A models in terms of dynamical systems reveals a hierarchy of invariant manifolds. By calculating the Kovalevski Exponents according to Adler - van Moerbecke method we discuss how algebraic integrability property is distributed in this class of models. In particular we find that algebraic nonintegrability of vacuum Bianchi VII_0 model is inherited by more general Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX vacuum types. Matter terms (cosmological constant, dust and radiation) in the Einstein equations typically generate irrational or complex Kovalevski exponents in class A homogeneous models thus introducing an element of nonintegrability even though the respective vacuum models are integrable.
Performance of Block Diagonalization Scheme for Downlink Multiuser MIMO System with Estimated Channel State Information  [PDF]
Feng Wang, Marek E. Bialkowski
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.42010
Abstract: In this paper, we study the performance of block diagonalization (BD) scheme for a downlink multiuser multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with imperfect channel state information (CSI). At each mobile user, information about the channel is obtained by applying the minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) channel estimation method. The channel state information is fed back to the base station through error-free uplink channels. A theoretical analysis is performed showing that channel estimation errors contribute to co-channel interferences thus deteriorating sum rate capacity. Computer simulations are performed to evaluate the impact of channel estimation errors on the sum rate capacity. The results show that if the MSE of the channel estimation is not less than 10-2, the impact of channel estimation errors is significant and cannot be neglected. To combat this adverse effect, a proper transmit power level is required for the training signals.
Beam Selection and Antenna Selection: a Hybrid Transmission Scheme over MIMO Systems Operating with Vary Antenna Arrays  [PDF]
Feng Wang, Marek E. Bialkowski
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.410078
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid transmission scheme which involves beam selection and antenna selection techniques over a MIMO system operating with vary antenna array. Optimal subset of transmit antennas are selected via fast successive selection scheme designed to optimize the target eigenbeam. Optimal eigenbeams corresponding to the largest singular values of the new MIMO channel formed by the selected antennas are exploited for data transmission. To evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, different array structures, including uniform linear array (ULA) and including uniform circular array (UCA) are employed in the simulations. The transmitter is assumed to be surrounded by scattering objects while the receiver is postulated to be free from scattering objects. The Laplacian distribution of angle of arrival (AoA) of a signal reaching the receiver is postulated. The results presented by this paper indicate that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the performance of data transmission in term of symbol error rate (SER).
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