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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4354 matches for " Marcus "
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Whither the Community? Lessons Madagascar Can Learn from Israel’s Water Policy  [PDF]
Richard R. Marcus
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410094
Abstract: Madagascar wrote a fundamentally new Water Code in 1998. It focused on maximizing the number of people with access to clean water through a process of decentralized water management and cost recovery. This paper is concerned with the policy problem this presents at the community level—is Malagasy water law the best possible for the country? Combining community-level focus group studies and policy analysis, this study examines Malagasy water policy shifts focusing on localization of water governance to parallel localization efforts in Israel. This study concludes that Madagascar’s water policy is flawed. Using a case study from the arid south this study explores the impact of these alternatives to ineffective state-centric policies. Comparing to Israel’s policy process this study finds that the Malagasy policy process has not been a process at all, the institutions are not in place, and the requisite levels of investment are not forthcoming. Rather than empowering communities as stewards of their own resources, community level management has been undermining effective governance by allowing the state to recede, and minimizing economic resources, while ignoring local capacity, local will, and increasing local water poverty.
Macropolitics and Microperceptions: Is There a Possible Market Answer to Water Woes in Ambovombe-Androy, Madagascar?  [PDF]
Richard R. Marcus
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.34030
Abstract: In Ambovombe-Androy water is scarce, time-consuming to obtain, and expense. Nonetheless, there is little study into the complexity of popular perception of costs for services in Madagascar. This paper addresses this gap. It is based on a district-wide household survey, focus groups, and interviews. It looks at the wide variation in pricing expectations across a number of intra-community demographic groups and economic classes before considering the user perceptions of water markets themselves as determinants of their willingness to pay. It concludes by isolating the determinants under which and places in which the new macro-level strategies are likely to be accepted, and work, at the community level in Ambovombe-Androy.
Feasibility of a Fully Automated Multiple Session Alcohol Intervention to University Students, Using Different Modes of Electronic Delivery—The TOPHAT 1 Study  [PDF]
Bendtsen Marcus, Bendtsen Preben
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.610A003

Background: In recent years more and more electronic health behaviour interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with an unhealthy behaviour such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant in university students who are among those who most frequently are risky drinkers. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility, in an unselected group of university students, of a fully automated multiple session alcohol intervention offering different modes of delivery such as email, SMS and Android. Material and Methods: A total of 11,283 students at Link?ping University in Sweden were invited to perform a single session alcohol intervention and among those accepting this (4916 students) a total of 24.7% accepted to further participate in the extended multiple intervention lasting 3 - 6 weeks. The students could choose mode of delivery, total length of the intervention (between 3 - 6 weeks) and number of messages per week (3, 5, or 7 per week). A follow-up questionnaire was applied after the intervention to which 82.7% responded. Results: most students wanted to receive the messages by email with the shortest intervention length (3 weeks) and as few messages as possible per week (3 messages). However, no major difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention despite chosen length and

Teaching Anatomy in the Multimedia World—Using Digital Tools for Progressive Learning over Time  [PDF]
Marcus Granmo, Fredrik Bengtsson
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.611117
Abstract: In a cross-faculty project journalism students filmed anatomy briefings on a medical program. The material gave medical students free access to rehearse and repeat over time. The journalism students on their part practiced camera technique, directing and editing: It was an opportunity for students to help students. Following a quality evaluation of undergraduate studies at the Lund University medical faculty in 2011, we explored, developed, and implemented novel educational tools to meet students’ need in the multimedia world in which they operate. Incorporating complementary digital learning resources, in particular integration with mobile applications enabled us to meet students in their own world, thereby enhancing the learning process. We produced short video clips on specific anatomic themes, following the curriculum of the well-established anatomy course, and posted them online, allowing continuous rehearsal and repetition over time at a pace that suits individual students. Also, available to all semesters it provides free opportunities for repetition, reducing the risk of knowledge-loss between basic and clinical parts of the program. Besides the obvious benefits for students, the material gave teachers a clear view of the students’ curriculum. Thus, the material can be used for alternative, more interactive forms of examination. The paper describes the project, and the results from evaluations and integration with mobile technology.
Interdisciplinary Practice: Dialogue as Action to Resist Colonialism in Higher Education  [PDF]
Alison J. Sammel, Marcus Waters
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.514139

Two colleagues, one who is identified as a Kamilaroi First Nation of Australia man, and a woman who is identified as Australian, from European decent, come together through dialogue to explore interdisciplinary practices within their university setting. Focusing on their areas of expertise, they share the similarities and differences associated with the concepts of identity, identifying and binaries between the teaching and learning of Science Education and First Nations Knowledge production. Through emerging dialogue, they realize that even though their cultural backgrounds are completely different, both are subjected to the complexities of hegemonic binaries that impact and influence their teaching practice. In striving for equity, both authors aim to continually recognize and challenge the binaries that privilege some agendas and students, and marginalize others. By sharing assumptions, beliefs and practices, the article invites the possibility that something new can emerge from their encounter to generate innovative understandings that will inform future practice. Through their praxis and dialogues with students, both have come to understand that it is not only those students marginalized by the system that appreciate their actions, but those who are privileged also benefit as they become more aware of an ever changing world around them.

Surfactant Levels in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
Marcus Davey
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040243
A Complete Theory of Everything (Will Be Subjective)
Marcus Hutter
Algorithms , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/a3040329
Abstract: Increasingly encompassing models have been suggested for our world. Theories range from generally accepted to increasingly speculative to apparently bogus. The progression of theories from ego- to geo- to helio-centric models to universe and multiverse theories and beyond was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the sizes of the postulated worlds, with humans being expelled from their center to ever more remote and random locations. Rather than leading to a true theory of everything, this trend faces a turning point after which the predictive power of such theories decreases (actually to zero). Incorporating the location and other capacities of the observer into such theories avoids this problem and allows to distinguish meaningful from predictively meaningless theories. This also leads to a truly complete theory of everything consisting of a (conventional objective) theory of everything plus a (novel subjective) observer process. The observer localization is neither based on the controversial anthropic principle, nor has it anything to do with the quantum-mechanical observation process. The suggested principle is extended to more practical (partial, approximate, probabilistic, parametric) world models (rather than theories of everything). Finally, I provide a justification of Ockham’s razor, and criticize the anthropic principle, the doomsday argument, the no free lunch theorem, and the falsifiability dogma.
Open Problems in Universal Induction & Intelligence
Marcus Hutter
Algorithms , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/a2030879
Abstract: Specialized intelligent systems can be found everywhere: finger print, handwriting, speech, and face recognition, spam filtering, chess and other game programs, robots, et al. This decade the first presumably complete mathematical theory of artificial intelligence based on universal induction-prediction-decision-action has been proposed. This informationtheoretic approach solidifies the foundations of inductive inference and artificial intelligence. Getting the foundations right usually marks a significant progress and maturing of a field. The theory provides a gold standard and guidance for researchers working on intelligent algorithms. The roots of universal induction have been laid exactly half-a-century ago and the roots of universal intelligence exactly one decade ago. So it is timely to take stock of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. Since there are already good recent surveys, I describe the state-of-the-art only in passing and refer the reader to the literature. This article concentrates on the open problems in universal induction and its extension to universal intelligence.
Using Crowdsourced Indoor Geodata for the Creation of a Three-Dimensional Indoor Routing Web Application
Marcus Goetz
Future Internet , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/fi4020575
Abstract: Routing services for outdoor areas are omnipresent and also three-dimensional (3D) visualization is quite common within this area. Recent research efforts are now trying to adapt well known outdoor routing services to complex indoor environments. However, most of the current indoor routing systems only focus on two-dimensional visualization, thus only one level can be depicted. Especially multi-level routes therefore lack visualization. Also, most of the (few) existing 3D indoor routing services utilize proprietary software or plugins, thus a widespread accessibility for those services by using common computers or mobile devices is not feasible. Therefore this paper describes the development of a web-based 3D routing system based on a new HTML extension. The visualization of rooms as well as the computed routes is realized with XML3D. Since this emerging technology is based on WebGL and will likely be integrated into the HTML5 standard, the developed system is already compatible with most common browsers such as Google Chrome or Firefox. Another key difference of the approach presented in this paper is that all utilized data is actually crowdsourced geodata from OpenStreetMap (OSM). Such data is collaboratively collected by both amateurs and professionals and can be used at no charge under the Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL). Our research combines user-generated geo content of the Web 2.0 with future Internet technology for the provision of a ubiquitously accessible 3D indoor routing application.
Advanced glycation endproducts in sepsis and mechanical ventilation: extra or leading man?
Marcus Baumann
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7939
Abstract: The advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) Nε-carboxy-methyllysine (CML), as recently investigated by Kneyber and colleagues [1], can be formed either from glucose via ketoamine or glyoxal or from lipids by oxidation via glyoxal. This may explain why the pathophysiological role of AGEs is not restricted to diabetes, in which condition they have been primarily studied [2].The enhanced formation of AGEs results in enhanced urinary excretion. In this context, renal-insufficient patients have been associated with CML values several times higher than in healthy controls. Accumulating AGEs can be observed histologically as endothelial depositions in atherosclerotic plaques and tubular cells [3-5]. Their deposition initiates increased NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor κB activity as well as a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity [6]. These major effects cause inflammatory changes, extracellular matrix accumulation and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, AGE accumulation is a potential target for treating inflammatory diseases.The new and interesting idea of Kneyber and colleagues was to investigate the association of CML with myocardial inflammation during sepsis and the clinically relevant state of mechanical ventilation, which by itself is known to induce AGE accumulation in the lungs. This is of relevance as sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is a frequent complication associated with increased mortality. Therefore, they focused on a situation where AGE accumulation is increased by systemic inflammation and exacerbated by mechanical ventilation. The association of CML with myocardial inflammation in sepsis and mechanical ventilation is intriguing. Indeed, sepsis enhances CML deposition, which is further aggravated by mechanical ventilation. Thus, the myocardial deposition of AGEs is associated with the disease and the therapeutic approach of mechanical ventilation perpetuates AGE formation.These results raise the question, however, whether the association
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