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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4425 matches for " Marcus Taft "
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Orthographic Influences When Processing Spoken Pseudowords: Theoretical Implications
Marcus Taft
Frontiers in Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00140
Abstract: When we hear an utterance, is the orthographic representation of that utterance activated when it is being processed? Orthographic influences have been previously examined in relation to spoken pseudoword processing in three different paradigms. Unlike real word processing, no orthographic effects with pseudowords have been observed in a phoneme goodness ratings task, and there is a mixed outcome in studies looking for spelling–sound consistency effects. In contrast, the orthography of spoken pseudohomographs has been shown to be activated, given that they prime their homographic base word. Explanations are sought for the findings in these three paradigms, leading to an exploration of theoretical models of spoken word recognition.
The Total Gauss Curvature of a Three-Manifold Immersed in r 4
Jefferson Taft
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: This paper has been removed. It is already a well known result.
Gentamicin Renal Excretion in Rats: Probing Strategies to Mitigate Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity  [PDF]
Aruna Dontabhaktuni, David R. Taft, Mayankbhai Patel
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2016.71007
Abstract: The renal excretion of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, was studied in the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPRK) model. Dose-linearity experiments were carried out at four doses (400, 800, 1600, 3200 μg), targeting initial perfusate levels of 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg/ml. Additionally, gentamicin was co-perfused with sodium bicarbonate (0.25 mM) and/or cimetidine (2 mM) to evaluate the effect of urinary alkalization and secretory inhibition on gentamicin excretion and kidney accumulation. Gentamicin displayed net reabsorption in the IPRK, consistent with extensive luminal uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that luminal transport of gentamicin (kidney ? urine) is the rate-determining step for gentamicin urinary excretion. Clearance and cumulative excretion decreased with increased gentamicin dose. Gentamicin kidney accumulation, estimated by mass balance, ranged from ~20% - 30%. Urinary alkalization significantly increased gentamicin excretion, with no effect on kidney accumulation. Conversely, cimetidine co-administration did not affect gentamicin clearance in the IPRK, but kidney accumulation was significantly reduced. When both sodium bicarbonate and cimetidine were administered together, gentamicin kidney accumulation decreased ~80% with corresponding increases in clearance and excretion ratio (XR) compared to gentamicin alone. A main strategy to reduce the incidence of nephrotoxicity with gentamicin therapy (up to ~25%) involves reducing kidney accumulation of the compound. The results of this research suggest that the combination of urinary alkalization and inhibition of basolateral secretion (blood → kidney) may be a viable approach to mitigate aminoglycoside toxicity, and warrants further investigation.
An Inclusive Look at the Domain of Ethics and Its Application to Administrative Behavior
Taft, Susan H
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2000,
Abstract: Ethical decision making and action in health care are complex phenomena. This article provides an inclusive overview of the domain of ethics, a discussion of the many origins of ethical values, and an historical overview of how ethics fits with the related domains of morality, religion, law, culture, professional codes of conduct, and policy. A case situation based on real events illustrates the ethical conflicts inherent to interdisciplinary health care administration, including the influence of power and money. The article seeks to facilitate ethical reflection in the health care disciplines, and to contribute to the level of discourse among professional care providers and their leaders. Ultimately, patients stand to benefit from our discerning choices.
A unique metal-semiconductor interface and resultant electron transfer phenomenon
S. L. Taft
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: An unusual electron transfer phenomenon has been identified from an n-type semiconductor to Schottky metal particles, the result of a unique metal semiconductor interface that results when the metal particles are grown from the semiconductor substrate. The unique interface acts as a one-way (rectifying) open gateway and was first identified in reduced rutile polycrystalline titanium dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) to Group VIII (noble) metal particles. The interface significantly affects the Schottky barrier height resulting in electron transfer to the metal particles from the reduced rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) based on their respective work functions. The result is a negative charge on the metal particles which is of sufficient magnitude and duration to provide cathodic protection of the metal particles from surface oxidation.
Introduction to COMPASS: navigating complexity in public health research
Taft Angela J,Bandyopadhyay Mridula
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-s5-s1
A class of left quantum groups modeled after SL_q(n)
Aaron Lauve,Earl J. Taft
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: For each n >1, we construct a left quantum group, i.e., a left Hopf algebra H generated by comatrix units X_{ij} and modeled after SL_q(n), which has a left antipode but no right antipode. The quantum special linear group SL_q(n) is a homomorphic image of our H.
Increasing biological complexity is positively correlated with the relative genome-wide expansion of non-protein-coding DNA sequences
Ryan J Taft, John S Mattick
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2003-5-1-p1
Abstract: We analyzed the ratio of noncoding to total genomic DNA (ncDNA/tgDNA) for 85 sequenced species and found that this ratio correlates well with increasing biological complexity. The ncDNA/tgDNA ratio is generally contained within the bandwidth of 0.05 - 0.24 for prokaryotes, but rises to 0.26 - 0.52 in unicellular eukaryotes, and to 0.62 - 0.985 for developmentally complex multicellular organisms. Significantly, prokaryotic species display a non-uniform species distribution approaching the mean of 0.1177 ncDNA/tgDNA (p = 1.58 x 10-13), and a nonlinear ncDNA/tgDNA relationship to genome size (r = 0.15). Importantly, the ncDNA/tgDNA ratio corrects for ploidy, and is not substantially affected by variable loads of repetitive sequences.We suggest that the observed noncoding DNA increases and compositional patterns are primarily a function of increased information content. It is therefore possible that introns, intergenic sequences, repeat elements, and genomic DNA previously regarded as genetically inert may be far more important to the evolution and functional repertoire of complex organisms than has been previously appreciated.Additional data file 1.
Depression and termination of pregnancy (induced abortion) in a national cohort of young Australian women: the confounding effect of women's experience of violence
Angela J Taft, Lyndsey F Watson
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-75
Abstract: Our objective was to examine the associations with depression of women's experience of violence, pregnancy termination, births and socio-demographic characteristics, among a population-based sample of young Australian women.The data from the Younger cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health comprised 14,776 women aged 18–23 in Survey I (1996) of whom 9683 aged 22–27 also responded to Survey 2 (2000). With linked data, we distinguished terminations, violence and depression reported before and after 1996.We used logistic regression to examine the association of depression (CES-D 10) as both a dichotomous and linear measure in 2000 with pregnancy termination, numbers of births and with violence separately and then in mutually adjusted models with sociodemographic variables.30% of young women were depressed. Eleven percent (n = 1076) reported a termination by 2000. A first termination before 1996 and between 1996 and 2000 were both associated with depression in a univariate model (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.12 to 1.66; OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.87). However, after adjustment for violence, numbers of births and sociodemographic variables (OR 1.22, 95%CI 0.99 to 1.51) this became only marginally significant, a similar association with having two or more births (1.26, 95%CI. 1.00 to 1.58).In contrast, any form of violence but especially that of partner violence in 1996 or 2000, was significantly associated with depression: in univariate (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.97 to 2.70 or 2.45, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.04) and multivariate models (AOR 2.06, 95%CI 1.74 to 2.43 or 2.12, 95%CI 1.69 to 2.65). Linear regression showed a four fold greater effect of violence than termination or births.Violence, especially partner violence, makes a significantly greater contribution to women's depression compared with pregnancy termination or births. Any strategy to reduce the burden of women's depression should include prevention or reduction of violence against women and strengthening women's sexua
Time-lapse analysis of potential cellular responsiveness to Johrei, a Japanese healing technique
Ryan Taft, Dan Moore, Garret Yount
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-5-2
Abstract: We assessed cultured human cancer cells for potential responsiveness to Johrei treatment from a short distance. Johrei treatment was delivered by practitioners who participated in teams of two, alternating every half hour for a total of four hours of treatment. The practitioners followed a defined set of mental procedures to minimize variability in mental states between experiments. An environmental chamber maintained optimal growth conditions for cells throughout the experiments. Computerized time-lapse microscopy allowed documentation of cancer cell proliferation and cell death before, during and after Johrei treatments.Comparing eight control experiments with eight Johrei intervention experiments, we found no evidence of a reproducible cellular response to Johrei treatment.Cell death and proliferation rates of cultured human cancer cells do not appear responsive to Johrei treatment from a short distance.Relatively little documentation supports a scientific basis for alternative healing therapies involving the manipulation of a purported healing energy associated with the body. Despite this paucity of evidence, such energy healing modalities are becoming increasingly popular. Recent surveys indicate the majority of the United States public has used alternative medical therapies, and that energy healing therapies are among the fastest growing complementary and alternative medicine treatments [1,2]. Johrei is one such energy healing practice with origins in Japan. Johrei was founded by Mokichi Okada in the 1920's and is now practiced worldwide with significant numbers of adherents in Asia, Europe and the Americas. Practitioners of Johrei believe it possible to improve the health of others by directing a universal healing energy toward them. The Johrei philosophy, as it relates to healing energy, emphasizes what can be described as "spiritual purification." Other aspects of the Johrei philosophy include fostering an appreciation of beauty, and a form of organic farmi
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