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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4357 matches for " Marcus Hasselhorn "
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Fostering Early Numerical Skills at School Start in Children at Risk for Mathematical Achievement Problems: A Small Sample Size Training Study
Marcus Hasselhorn,Kathrin Linke-Hasselhorn
International Education Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n3p213
Abstract: Eight six-year old German children with development disabilities regarding such number competencies as have been demonstrated to be among the most relevant precursor skills for the acquisition of elementary mathematics received intensive training with the program "Mengen, z hlen, Zahlen" ["quantities, counting, numbers"] (MZZ, Krajewski, Nieding, & Schneider, 2007). In 24 30-minute training sessions administered across an interval of eight weeks, four children received the full program. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, the effectiveness of the training was demonstrated with a large effect size (d = 4.6). In addition, a shortened training of the waiting control group (n = 4) after finishing the principal evaluation replicated the appropriateness of the MZZ program (d = 2.5) as a means of remediating early number competence deficiencies at the onset of formal schooling.
Socioscientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom: The Effect of Embedded Metacognitive Instructions on Students' Learning Outcomes
Sabina Eggert,Frauke Ostermeyer,Marcus Hasselhorn,Susanne B?geholz
Education Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/309894
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cooperative training strategies to enhance students' socioscientific decision making as well as their metacognitive skills in the science classroom. Socioscientific decision making refers to both “describing socioscientific issues” as well as “developing and evaluating solutions” to socioscientific issues. We investigated two cooperative training strategies which differed with respect to embedded metacognitive instructions that were developed on the basis of the IMPROVE method. Participants were 360 senior high school students who studied either in a cooperative learning setting (COOP), a cooperative learning setting with embedded metacognitive questions (COOP+META), or a nontreatment control group. Results indicate that students in the two training conditions outperformed students in the control group on both processes of socioscientific decision making. However, students in the COOP+META condition did not outperform students in the COOP condition. With respect to students' learning outcomes on the regulation facet of metacognition, results indicate that all conditions improved over time. Students in the COOP+META condition exhibited highest mean scores at posttest measures, but again, results were not significant. Implications for integrating metacognitive instructions into science classrooms are discussed. 1. Introduction Over the past decades curriculum authorities as well as science educators and researchers worldwide have called for changes in the way science is taught at schools (e.g., [1–4]). Modern science education should not only foster the acquisition of scientific content knowledge but engage students in scientific inquiry, in lifelong learning and in discussions about modern science problems, their technological applications as well as their personal and societal implications [1–5]. In a similar vein, the implementation of socioscientific issues into the science classroom has been proposed for more than two decades (e.g., [6–10]). Socioscientific issues represent modern science problems, such as global climate change or the loss of worldwide biodiversity, that are tightly linked to social, political, and economical concerns (e.g., [11]). They are complex, real-world scenarios at the interplay between science and society and thus, can no longer be solved by relying on scientific knowledge only [8, 10, 11]. Consequently, they fundamentally challenge the aims and scope of traditional science instruction. A growing body of research within the area of science education highlights
Grey Matter Alterations Co-Localize with Functional Abnormalities in Developmental Dyslexia: An ALE Meta-Analysis
Janosch Linkersd?rfer, Jan Lonnemann, Sven Lindberg, Marcus Hasselhorn, Christian J. Fiebach
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043122
Abstract: The neural correlates of developmental dyslexia have been investigated intensively over the last two decades and reliable evidence for a dysfunction of left-hemispheric reading systems in dyslexic readers has been found in functional neuroimaging studies. In addition, structural imaging studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrated grey matter reductions in dyslexics in several brain regions. To objectively assess the consistency of these findings, we performed activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on nine published VBM studies reporting 62 foci of grey matter reduction in dyslexic readers. We found six significant clusters of convergence in bilateral temporo-parietal and left occipito-temporal cortical regions and in the cerebellum bilaterally. To identify possible overlaps between structural and functional deviations in dyslexic readers, we conducted additional ALE meta-analyses of imaging studies reporting functional underactivations (125 foci from 24 studies) or overactivations (95 foci from 11 studies ) in dyslexics. Subsequent conjunction analyses revealed overlaps between the results of the VBM meta-analysis and the meta-analysis of functional underactivations in the fusiform and supramarginal gyri of the left hemisphere. An overlap between VBM results and the meta-analysis of functional overactivations was found in the left cerebellum. The results of our study provide evidence for consistent grey matter variations bilaterally in the dyslexic brain and substantial overlap of these structural variations with functional abnormalities in left hemispheric regions.
Identity Negative Priming: A Phenomenon of Perception, Recognition or Selection?
Hecke Schrobsdorff, Matthias Ihrke, J?rg Behrendt, J. Michael Herrmann, Marcus Hasselhorn
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032946
Abstract: The present study addresses the problem whether negative priming (NP) is due to information processing in perception, recognition or selection. We argue that most NP studies confound priming and perceptual similarity of prime-probe episodes and implement a color-switch paradigm in order to resolve the issue. In a series of three identity negative priming experiments with verbal naming response, we determined when NP and positive priming (PP) occur during a trial. The first experiment assessed the impact of target color on priming effects. It consisted of two blocks, each with a different fixed target color. With respect to target color no differential priming effects were found. In Experiment 2 the target color was indicated by a cue for each trial. Here we resolved the confounding of perceptual similarity and priming condition. In trials with coinciding colors for prime and probe, we found priming effects similar to Experiment 1. However, trials with a target color switch showed such effects only in trials with role-reversal (distractor-to-target or target-to-distractor), whereas the positive priming (PP) effect in the target-repetition trials disappeared. Finally, Experiment 3 split trial processing into two phases by presenting the trial-wise color cue only after the stimulus objects had been recognized. We found recognition in every priming condition to be faster than in control trials. We were hence led to the conclusion that PP is strongly affected by perception, in contrast to NP which emerges during selection, i.e., the two effects cannot be explained by a single mechanism.
Socioscientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom: The Effect of Embedded Metacognitive Instructions on Students' Learning Outcomes
Sabina Eggert,Frauke Ostermeyer,Marcus Hasselhorn,Susanne Bögeholz
Education Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/309894
Abstract:
Working conditions and Work-Family Conflict in German hospital physicians: psychosocial and organisational predictors and consequences
Isabelle Fu?, Matthias Nübling, Hans-Martin Hasselhorn, David Schwappach, Monika A Rieger
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-353
Abstract: Data were collected by questionnaires as part of a study on Psychosocial work hazards and strains of German hospital physicians during April–July 2005. Two hundred and ninety-six hospital physicians (response rate 38.9%) participated in the survey. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), work interfering with family conflict scale (WIF), and hospital-specific single items on work organisation were used to assess WIF, its predictors, and consequences.German hospital physicians reported elevated levels of WIF (mean = 74) compared to the general German population (mean = 45, p < .01). No significant gender difference was found. Predictors for the WIF were lower age, high quantitative demands at work, elevated number of days at work despite own illness, and consequences of short-notice changes in the duty roster. Good sense of community at work was a protective factor. Compared to the general German population, we observed a significant higher level of quantitative work demands among hospital physicians (mean = 73 vs. mean = 57, p < .01). High values of WIF were significantly correlated to higher rates of personal burnout, behavioural and cognitive stress symptoms, and the intention to leave the job. In contrast, low levels of WIF predicted higher job satisfaction, better self-judged general health status, better work ability, and higher satisfaction with life in general. Compared to the German general population, physicians showed significantly higher levels of individual stress and quality of life as well as lower levels for well-being. This has to be judged as an alerting finding regarding the state of physicians' health.In our study, work interfering with family conflict (WIF) as part of Work-Family Conflict (WFC) was highly prevalent among German hospital physicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WIF. Some of these predictors are accessible to alteration b
Measuring psychological stress and strain at work: Evaluation of the COPSOQ Questionnaire in Germany
Nübling, Matthias,St??el, Ulrich,Hasselhorn, Hans-Martin,Michaelis, Martina
GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: The undisputed increase of the relevance of mental work load is confronted with a lack of qualified or at least well documented measuring instruments covering all important aspects.The COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire), a comprehensive instrument for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work, was tested in a partly modified version in a large German sample (N = 2561 employees). The aims of the study were the detailed investigation of the psychometric measurement properties, and based on these results, the development of an abbreviated version of the instrument.The analysis of objectivity, acceptance, practicability, sensitivity and content validity of the questionnaire as a whole did not show any problematic results – with some limitations regarding the length of the questionnaire.The assessment of the reliability, generalisability, construct validity, criterion validity and diagnostic power of the single scales showed medium to good measuring qualities for the majority of the scales (i.e. Cronbach’s alpha mostly >0.7). In addition, the psychometric properties were very similar to those in the Danish COPSOQ-study.Considering all aspects of the measurement quality, a shortened version of the instrument was created. It attempts to combine measuring qualities as high as possible with a number of questions as low as possible.The German COPSOQ questionnaire is a free screening-instrument for the recording of psychosocial work load and strain for all enterprises and organisations interested. The next step is the construction of a "job exposure matrix" for psychosocial factors at work, that means a central database with work load profiles and reference values for as many occupational groups as possible.
Contribution of job strain to nurses’ consideration of leaving the profession—results from the longitudinal European nurses’ early exit study
Hans Martin Hasselhorn,Paul Maurice Conway,Maria Widerszal-Bazyl,Michael Simon
SJWEH Supplements , 2008,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The role of work characteristics was assessed, as operationalized by the demand–control model with respect to nurses’ intent to leave their profession, using data from the European nurses’ early exit (NEXT) study. METHODS: Data from a self-report questionnaire filled out by 11 606 registered nurses who worked in hospitals in eight European countries and who had participated in both the NEXT baseline assessment (2002–2003) and the NEXT follow-up assessment (2003–2004) were used. RESULTS: The countries varied substantially as regards demands, influence, and intent to leave the profession. The variables also varied considerably over time within the countries. Among the nurses not considering leaving the profession in 2002–2003, those initially not exposed to job strain (high demands and low influence) but exposed 1 year later had a 2.7-fold higher risk of considering to leave the profession [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.1–3.4, multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders) when compared with the reference group (no job strain both times). The nurses with job strain in both assessments showed a 2.3-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.8–2.9). No increased risk was found for those with job strain in the first assessment but not in the second assessment. The findings were similar for most countries. CONCLUSIONS: The considerable variability of the job demand–control indicators assessed during the 12-month period may imply a potential for improvement. The results emphasize the importance of changes in job strain in determining fluctuations in nurses’ considerations of leaving their profession, even over a short period.
Whither the Community? Lessons Madagascar Can Learn from Israel’s Water Policy  [PDF]
Richard R. Marcus
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410094
Abstract: Madagascar wrote a fundamentally new Water Code in 1998. It focused on maximizing the number of people with access to clean water through a process of decentralized water management and cost recovery. This paper is concerned with the policy problem this presents at the community level—is Malagasy water law the best possible for the country? Combining community-level focus group studies and policy analysis, this study examines Malagasy water policy shifts focusing on localization of water governance to parallel localization efforts in Israel. This study concludes that Madagascar’s water policy is flawed. Using a case study from the arid south this study explores the impact of these alternatives to ineffective state-centric policies. Comparing to Israel’s policy process this study finds that the Malagasy policy process has not been a process at all, the institutions are not in place, and the requisite levels of investment are not forthcoming. Rather than empowering communities as stewards of their own resources, community level management has been undermining effective governance by allowing the state to recede, and minimizing economic resources, while ignoring local capacity, local will, and increasing local water poverty.
Macropolitics and Microperceptions: Is There a Possible Market Answer to Water Woes in Ambovombe-Androy, Madagascar?  [PDF]
Richard R. Marcus
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.34030
Abstract: In Ambovombe-Androy water is scarce, time-consuming to obtain, and expense. Nonetheless, there is little study into the complexity of popular perception of costs for services in Madagascar. This paper addresses this gap. It is based on a district-wide household survey, focus groups, and interviews. It looks at the wide variation in pricing expectations across a number of intra-community demographic groups and economic classes before considering the user perceptions of water markets themselves as determinants of their willingness to pay. It concludes by isolating the determinants under which and places in which the new macro-level strategies are likely to be accepted, and work, at the community level in Ambovombe-Androy.
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