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Optimisation et rationalisation de l'immunisation du bétail de la Zambie de l'est contre Theileria parva
Marcotty, T.
Tropicultura , 2004,
Abstract: Optimisation and Rationalisation of Cattle Immunisation against Theileria parva in Eastern Zambia. En zone cotonnière de la Centrafrique, les agriculteurs ont diversifié leurs activités en dépit de la faiblesse de la main-d'oeuvre familiale. L'objet de l'étude était de comprendre les pratiques de gestion de la main-d'oeuvre qui permettaient à ces agriculteurs d'assurer la diversification des activités. La mise au point de cette étude a reposé sur le suivi rapproché de 30 exploitations pendant trois campagnes agricoles. En outre, l'observation des pratiques de gestion globale de l'exploitation, couplée à des entretiens avec l'agriculteur et sa famille, a permis de compléter les données du suivi. Les résultats ont montré que les agriculteurs sont parvenus à réaliser la diversification des activités grace au recours à la force de travail extérieure qui a représenté en moyenne 42% de la main-d'oeuvre totale utilisée sur l'exploitation. Cette diversification leur a permis de disposer des recettes toute l'année, ce qui a limité les risques de rupture d'équilibre entre recettes et dépenses, et a amené à la stabilité de la trésorerie. Ainsi, l'appui aux agriculteurs ne doit pas seulement prendre en compte la main-d'oeuvre familiale disponible, mais devait tenir compte de leur capacité à recourir à la main-d'oeuvre extérieure.
Interaction between otorhinolaryngology and orthodontics: correlation between the nasopharyngeal airway and the craniofacial complex
Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika,Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp
GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery , 2010,
Abstract: In terms of pathophysiology, an anatomically narrow airway is a predisposing factor for obstruction of the upper respiratory tract. The correlation between the nasopharyngeal airway and the craniofacial structures is discussed in this context. Thus a mutual interaction between the pharynx and the mandibular position was demonstrated, whereby the transverse dimension of the nasopharynx was significantly larger in patients with prognathism than in patients with retrognathism. The influence of chronic obstruction of the nasal airway on craniofacial development was also discussed. The form-and-function interaction, which ought to explain the causal relationship between nasal obstruction and craniofacial growth, appears to be of a multifactorial rather than a one-dimensional, linear nature. It is not disputed, however, that expanding the maxilla improves not only nasal volume and nasal flow, but also the subjective sensation of patients, although it is not possible to make a prognostic statement about the extent of this improvement because of the differing reactions of individuals. Orthodontic appliances for advancing the mandible can also be successfully used in the treatment of mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This treatment method should be considered particularly for patients who are unwilling to undergo or cannot tolerate CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) treatment.
Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in Arsi-Negele District Ethiopia: Prevalence in Ruminants and People's Behaviour towards Zoonoses
Amenu, K.,Thys, E.,Regassa, A.,Marcotty, T.
Tropicultura , 2010,
Abstract: A study was carried out in Arsi-Negele District of Southern Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in livestock and to identify risk behaviours that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. The study involved testing some 400 cattle, 200 sheep and 170 goats for tuberculosis and brucellosis and interviewing 98 livestock keepers. Single comparative intradermal tuberculin test and Rose Bengal plate test were used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and brucellosis, respectively. Tuberculosis was recorded in 27 cattle, 1 goat and 1 sheep. In cattle, the estimated individuallevel and herd-level tuberculosis prevalence was 5.9% and 35%, respectively. The individual-level and herdlevel brucellosis prevalence in cattle was 2.6% and 12%, respectively. The questionnaire survey showed that most respondents had no accurate knowledge about the transmission of zoonoses. It was also found that some of their behaviours would potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to human, such as raw animal product consumption and backyard slaughtering. Even though the prevalence of the two diseases was relatively low, surveillance and prevention may be warranted taking into account possible animal genetic improvement programs, unrestricted animal movement in the area and low awareness of the community about zoonoses, which might result in an increased transmission to humans.
Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors in The Gambia and Senegal
Arss Secka,Tanguy Marcotty,Redgi De Deken,Eric Van Marck,Stanny Geerts
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/823892
Abstract: During a stratified cross-sectional survey, 1705 pigs were sampled from 279 randomly selected households, 63 randomly selected communities and villages, from four study areas in The Gambia and Senegal during the period October 2007 to January 2008. Porcine cysticercosis prevalence detected by tongue inspection at animal level per study area ranged from 0.1% to 1.0%. Using an antigen-detection ELISA the seroprevalence of cysticercosis at both community/village and animal levels for the four selected study areas is: Western region 80.0% (95%CI: 52.4%–93.6%) and 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4%–6.5%), Bignona 86.7% (95%CI: 59.8%–96.6%) and 8.9% (95%CI: 5.0%–15.5%), Kolda 82.4% (95%CI: 46.8%–96.1%) and 13.2% (95%CI: 10.8%–16.0%), and Ziguinchor 81.3% (95%CI: 43.5%–96.1%) and 6.4% (95%CI: 4.0%–10.1%), respectively. No risk factors for cysticercosis were found significant in this study. This study proved that porcine cysticercosis is endemic and distributed widely in the study areas though its incidence might be suppressed by the generalised use of toilets and latrines in the study areas. 1. Introduction Porcine cysticercosis caused by the larval form (cysticercus or metacestode) of Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of both economic and public health importance. Although rarely associated with clinical symptoms [1], porcine cysticercosis causes great economic losses due to the disposal or the processing of infected carcasses. In Mexico, the disease causes a loss of more than half the national investment in swine production and an annual economic loss of US$ 164 million in Latin America [2]. In the same country, it was also reported that cysticercosis caused pig production losses of US $43 million in 1980 [3]. Annual losses due to porcine cysticercosis in 10 West and Central African countries are estimated at 25 million Euros [4]. All these figures are gross estimates, and more research is necessary to calculate the real economic cost of porcine cysticercosis. The public health importance of T. solium is linked to the fact that humans are the definitive hosts of the parasite, but more importantly they may develop neurocysticercosis by the accidental ingestion of the tapeworm eggs. Neurocysticercosis, which is one of the major causes of epilepsy in developing countries [1], is a neglected disease, and its prevalence is largely underestimated [5]. There is limited information on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in The Gambia and Senegal. It has not been reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) by both countries from 1996 to 2009 [6], and published
High Prevalence of Drug Resistance in Animal Trypanosomes without a History of Drug Exposure
Simbarashe Chitanga,Tanguy Marcotty,Boniface Namangala,Peter Van den Bossche ?,Jan Van Den Abbeele,Vincent Delespaux
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001454
Abstract: Background Trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma congolense is a major constraint to animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, the treatment of the disease is impaired by the spread of drug resistance. Resistance to diminazene aceturate (DA) in T. congolense is linked to a mutation modifying the functioning of a P2-type purine-transporter responsible for the uptake of the drug. Our objective was to verify if the mutation was linked or not to drug pressure. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-four T. congolense isolates sampled from tsetse or wildlife were screened for the DA-resistance linked mutation using DpnII-PCR-RFLP. The results showed 1 sensitive, 12 resistant and 21 mixed DpnII-PCR-RFLP profiles. This suggests that the mutation is present on at least one allele of each of the 33 isolates. For twelve of the isolates, a standard screening method in mice was used by (i) microscopic examination, (ii) trypanosome-specific 18S-PCR after 2 months of observation and (iii) weekly trypanosome-specific 18S-PCR for 8 weeks. The results showed that all mice remained microscopically trypanosome-positive after treatment with 5 mg/kg DA. With 10 and 20 mg/kg, 8.3% (n = 72) and 0% (n = 72) of the mice became parasitologically positive after treatment. However, in these latter groups the trypanosome-specific 18S-PCR indicated a higher degree of trypanosome-positivity, i.e., with a unique test, 51.4% (n = 72) and 38.9% (n = 72) and with the weekly tests 79.2% (n = 24) and 66.7% (n = 24) for 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion/Significance The widespread presence of the DA-resistance linked mutation in T. congolense isolated from wildlife suggests that this mutation is favourable to parasite survival and/or its dissemination in the host population independent from the presence of drug. After treatment with DA, those T. congolense isolates cause persisting low parasitaemias even after complete elimination of the drug and with little impact on the host's health.
Red blood cell volume as a predictor of fatal reactions in cattle infected with Theileria parva Katete
P. Fandamu,T. Marcotty,J.R.A. Brandt,L. Duchateau
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v74i1.138
Abstract: A comparison of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and packed cell volume (PCV) was made between cattle undergoing lethal and non-lethal reactions following experimental infections with the apicomplexan protozoa, Theileria parva Katete. This work confirmed that anaemia occurs in infected animals. However, the fall in PCV was steeper in lethal reactions compared to non-lethal reactions. Our results show that animals with initially lower MCV values are more prone to fatal reaction, despite having normal PCV profiles. The study also found that small red blood cells are more likely to be infected with T. parva. These findings suggest that animals with a higher proportion of small red blood cells in circulation will be more likely to succumb to T. parva infections. The potential for using MCV as a predictor of the outcome of infection challenge is discussed.
Dental and Craniofacial Anomalies Associated with Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome with PITX2 Mutation
Simone Dressler,Philipp Meyer-Marcotty,Nicole Weisschuh,Anahita Jablonski-Momeni,Klaus Pieper,Gwendolyn Gramer,Eugen Gramer
Case Reports in Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/621984
Abstract: Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) (OMIM Nr.: 180500) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder (1  :  200000) with genetic and morphologic variability. Glaucoma is associated in 50% of the patients. Craniofacial and dental anomalies are frequently reported with ARS. The present study was designed as a multidisciplinary analysis of orthodontic, ophthalmologic, and genotypical features. A three-generation pedigree was ascertained through a family with ARS. Clinically, radiographic and genetic analyses were performed. Despite an identical genotype in all patients, the phenotype varies in expressivity of craniofacial and dental morphology. Screening for PITX2 and FOXC1 mutations by direct DNA-sequencing revealed a P64L missense mutation in PITX2 in all family members, supporting earlier reports that PITX2 is an essential factor in morphogenesis of teeth and craniofacial skeleton. Despite the fact that the family members had identical mutations, morphologic differences were evident. The concomitant occurrence of rare dental and craniofacial anomalies may be early diagnostic indications of ARS. Early detection of ARS and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) helps to prevent visual field loss.
Chemosensitization of Trypanosoma congolense Strains Resistant to Isometamidium Chloride by Tetracyclines and Enrofloxacin
Vincent Delespaux ,Hervé Sèna Vitouley,Tanguy Marcotty,Niko Speybroeck,Dirk Berkvens,Krisna Roy,Stanny Geerts,Peter Van den Bossche
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000828
Abstract: Background Because of the development of resistance in trypanosomes to trypanocidal drugs, the livelihood of millions of livestock keepers in sub-Saharan Africa is threatened now more than ever. The existing compounds have become virtually useless and pharmaceutical companies are not keen on investing in the development of new trypanocides. We may have found a breakthrough in the treatment of resistant trypanosomal infections, through the combination of the trypanocide isometamidium chloride (ISM) with two affordable veterinary antibiotics. Methodology/Principal Findings In a first experiment, groups of mice were inoculated with Trypanosoma congolense strains resistant to ISM and either left untreated or treated with (i) tetracycline, (ii) ISM or (iii) the combination of the antibiotic and the trypanocide. Survival analysis showed that there was a significant effect of treatment and resistance to treatment on the survival time. The groups treated with ISM (with or without antibiotic) survived significantly longer than the groups that were not treated with ISM (P<0.01). The group treated with the combination trypanocide/antibiotic survived significantly longer than the group treated with ISM (P<0.01). In a second experiment, groups of cattle were inoculated with the same resistant trypanosome strain and treated with (i) ISM, (ii) ISM associated with oxytetracycline or (iii) ISM associated with enrofloxacine. All animals treated with ISM became parasitaemic. In the groups treated with ISM-oxytetracycline and ISM-enrofloxacine, 50% of the animals were cured. Animals from the groups treated with a combination trypanocide/antibiotic presented a significantly longer prepatent period than animals treated with ISM (p<0.001). The impact of the disease on the haematocrit was low in all ISM treated groups. Yet, it was lower in the groups treated with the combination trypanocide/antibiotic (p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance After optimization of the administration protocol, this new therapeutic combination could constitute a promising treatment for livestock infected with drug resistant T. congolense.
Spatial targeted vector control in the highlands of Burundi and its impact on malaria transmission
Natacha Protopopoff, Wim Van Bortel, Tanguy Marcotty, Michel Van Herp, Peter Maes, Dismas Baza, Umberto D'Alessandro, Marc Coosemans
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-158
Abstract: In Karuzi, in 2002–2005, vector control activities combining indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets were implemented. The interventions were done before the expected malaria transmission period and targeted the valleys between hills, with the expectation that this would also protect the populations living at higher altitudes. The impact on the Anopheles population and on malaria transmission was determined by nine cross-sectional surveys carried out at regular intervals throughout the study period.Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus represented 95% of the collected anopheline species. In the valleys, where the vector control activities were implemented, Anopheles density was reduced by 82% (95% CI: 69–90). Similarly, transmission was decreased by 90% (95% CI: 63%–97%, p = 0.001). In the sprayed valleys, Anopheles density was further reduced by 79.5% (95% CI: 51.7–91.3, p < 0.001) in the houses with nets as compared to houses without them. No significant impact on vector density and malaria transmission was observed in the hill tops. However, the intervention focused on the high risk areas near the valley floor, where 93% of the vectors are found and 90% of the transmission occurs.Spatial targeted vector control effectively reduced Anopheles density and transmission in this highland district. Bed nets have an additional effect on Anopheles density though this did not translate in an additional impact on transmission. Though no impact was observed in the hilltops, the programme successfully covered the areas most at risk. Such a targeted strategy could prevent the emergence and spread of an epidemic from these high risk foci.Malaria epidemics occur frequently in the African highlands [1-3]. Their control is a priority and a specific plan of action was adopted by the African leaders during the 2000 Abuja summit [4]. An early warning system to increase malaria epidemic preparedness and prevention has been promoted, based on climate data, p
The Sequential Aerosol Technique: A Major Component in an Integrated Strategy of Intervention against Riverine Tsetse in Ghana
Yahaya Adam,Giuliano Cecchi,Patrick M. Kgori,Tanguy Marcotty,Charles I. Mahama,Martin Abavana,Benita Anderson,Massimo Paone,Raffaele Mattioli,Jérémy Bouyer
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002135
Abstract: Background An integrated strategy of intervention against tsetse flies was implemented in the Upper West Region of Ghana (9.62°–11.00° N, 1.40°–2.76° W), covering an area of ≈18,000 km2 within the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. Two species were targeted: Glossina tachinoides and Glossina palpalis gambiensis. Methodology/Principal Findings The objectives were to test the potentiality of the sequential aerosol technique (SAT) to eliminate riverine tsetse species in a challenging subsection (dense tree canopy and high tsetse densities) of the total sprayed area (6,745 km2) and the subsequent efficacy of an integrated strategy including ground spraying (≈100 km2), insecticide treated targets (20,000) and insecticide treated cattle (45,000) in sustaining the results of tsetse suppression in the whole intervention area. The aerial application of low-dosage deltamethrin aerosols (0.33–0.35 g a.i/ha) was conducted along the three main rivers using five custom designed fixed-wings Turbo thrush aircraft. The impact of SAT on tsetse densities was monitored using 30 biconical traps deployed from two weeks before until two weeks after the operations. Results of the SAT monitoring indicated an overall reduction rate of 98% (from a pre-intervention mean apparent density per trap per day (ADT) of 16.7 to 0.3 at the end of the fourth and last cycle). One year after the SAT operations, a second survey using 200 biconical traps set in 20 sites during 3 weeks was conducted throughout the intervention area to measure the impact of the integrated control strategy. Both target species were still detected, albeit at very low densities (ADT of 0.27 inside sprayed blocks and 0.10 outside sprayed blocks). Conclusions/Significance The SAT operations failed to achieve elimination in the monitored section, but the subsequent integrated strategy maintained high levels of suppression throughout the intervention area, which will contribute to improving animal health, increasing animal production and fostering food security.
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