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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 470347 matches for " Marcos A. Espinal "
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Discussion
Espinal Marcos A.,Zaleski Richard,Suárez Pedro Guillermo,Cullinan Tim
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract:
Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?
Maria Cristina Schneider ,Patricia Najera,Sylvain Aldighieri,Deise I. Galan,Eric Bertherat,Alfonso Ruiz,Elsy Dumit,Jean Marc Gabastou,Marcos A. Espinal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002680
Abstract: Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.
Leptospirosis: A Silent Epidemic Disease
Maria Cristina Schneider,Michel Jancloes,Daniel F. Buss,Sylvain Aldighieri,Eric Bertherat,Patricia Najera,Deise I. Galan,Kara Durski,Marcos A. Espinal
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10127229
Abstract: This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to leptospirosis, an endemic zoonotic disease that is a cause of many acute undifferentiated fevers, especially in tropical countries [1,2]. While it can be debated whether leptospirosis is an emerging disease, it is evident that it is becoming an emerging public health problem. It is recognized as a disease of epidemic potential that has a significant health impact in many parts of the world.
Principales problemas en el uso de los recursos gramaticales en la producción escrita de los estudiantes del ciclo propedéutico del INTEC. Agosto/Octubre 2OOO
M.A. Olga Espinal
Ciencia y Sociedad , 2001,
Abstract: El informe que se presenta a continuación recoge la información pertinente acerca de los problemas gramaticales y normativos que se presentan en la redacción de los estudiantes del INTEC. La recolección de información y su análisis, se efectuó en el trimestre agosto-octubre de 2000 en un amuestra no probababilistica de los estudiantes que aprobaron el espa ol II. Este estudio es de tipo exploratorio, no se describen las características de la producción escrita, a los estudiantes se ofrece un listado de problemas de orden gramatical. El objetivo general del estudio, fue determinar los principales problemas el uso de los recursos gramaticales en la producción escrita de los estudiantes: se seleccionaron diez problemas principales el inventario realizado y se descartaron aquellos que no eran presentados por más de un l0% de la muestra. Los problemas detectados abarcan usos inadecuados de : la frase nominal plena( 83%), determinantes con relación a un referente (55 %), sustitutos del nombre( 95%), categorías gramaticales de acuerdo con la estructura textual( 95%) oraciones compuestas subordinadas que marquen límites en la estructura textual (97%), concordancia entre los tiempos verbales (52%), concordancia sujeto-verbo(20%), preposiciones y conjunciones (65%), acentuación (45%) y puntuación(42%).
What Research Is Needed to Stop TB? Introducing the TB Research Movement
Christian Lienhardt ,Marcos Espinal,Madhukar Pai,Dermot Maher,Mario C. Raviglione
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001135
Abstract:
Reparto de recursos de los gremios de lagartijas en el Ca?ón de Chínipas, Chihuahua, México
SANTOYO-BRITO, Enrique;LEMOS-ESPINAL, Julio A.;
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: we studied the resource partitioning of time and space in lizard assemblages in three different plant associations (tropical deciduous forest [btc], oak forest [be], and pine forest [bp]) located in chínipas' canyon, chihuahua, in which we observed sixteen lizard species of ten genera. the niche overlap was determined using pianka's index while simpson's formula was used for the calculation of the niche breadth. the results indicate that the niche overlap index values, per species pair, are generally lower than ojk = 0.50. however, for the pseudo communities, generated with the survey information gathered from topical deciduous forests and pine forests, statistical values were obtained that suggest the existence of potential competition in regards to resource time in each vegetation association. the niche breadth values indicate that the individuals tend to be specialists when using time resource and generalists when using resource space. sceloporus clarkii was the only species recorded in the three plant associations.
CADENA DE SUMINISTRO EN EL SECTOR MINERO COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA SU PRODUCTIVIDAD
CORREA ESPINAL,ALEXANDER; GóMEZ MONTOYA,RODRIGO A.;
Boletín de Ciencias de la Tierra , 2009,
Abstract: this literature review seeks to identify the use of supply chain models in the mining sector of colombia and south america as a means to increase productivity through the studies review, articles, books and journals. this review is about general aspects of mining in south america and colombia and the description of the concepts of supply chain management, including review of their applications in peru, chile and colombia. from this review it was noted that the concept of supply chain is being promoted and implemented in peru and chile, which has enabled them to increase their productivity and competitiveness. in the case of colombia, was not identified to be implemented integral form, which becomes an opportunity to promote this line of work to increase productivity and mining resource use.
Caracterización molecular de Escherichia coli y Klebsiella pneumoniae productores de ?-lactamasas de espectro extendido en hospitales de la Región Caribe, Colombia
Gaitán C,Sandra L; Espinal M,Paula A; ,;
Revista chilena de infectología , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-10182009000400006
Abstract: esbl-producing in enterobacteriaceae, is the main resistance mechanism to extended spectrum cephalosporin and monobactams. seventy isolates collected of hospitals in four cities of the colombian caribean, were characterized to esbl production and metalo-?-lactamases by microbiological test. the ?-lactamases characterization were performed by ief and rpc; genotyping by pfge. results evidenced the esbl production at four cities with more frequency in klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from uci. the ?-lactamases present in escherichia coli and in k. pneumoniae contributed co-resistance to different antibiotic families. enzymes were detected with resistance to cephalosporin and carbapenems, suggesting presence of carbapenemases. polyclonal isolates noticed, neither demonstrated presence of endemic strains nor association with epidemic outbreak. it is evident the importance to combine clinical, microbiological and molecular information to surveillance the prevalence and evolution of these enzymes in these hospitals.
Técnicas de aislamiento pulmonar selectivo
Vélez Cardona,Lina María; Espinal,Juan Alberto;
Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología , 2006,
Abstract: starting from 1930, several techniques of lung isolation has been developed, generating an important evolution in anesthesia, mainly in cardiothoracic anesthesia, improving the knowledge of lung physiology, so interventions that require lung isolation are better every time. the purpose of the separation or lung isolation, is the selective interruption of the ventilation in a lung (total pulmonary collapse) or a portion of the lung (selective lobar collapse). as the clinical indications for the lung isolation have expanded, limitations have arisen for the use of the double-lumen tubes. for this reason, alternatives for lung isolation, such as bronchial blockers have become important options. at the present time, despite having so many devices, there have not been randomized studies demonstrating the superiority of one device over another.
EFECTOS COOPERATIVOS EN HETEROTETRáMEROS (ETANOL)3-AGUA
Mejía,Sol M; Espinal,Juan F; Mondragón,Fanor;
Revista Colombiana de Química , 2009,
Abstract: density functional theory (dft: b3lyp/6-31 + g(d)) was used for the optimization of clusters on the potential energy surface of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers. the tetramerization energies can reach values up to -21.00 kcal/ mol. this energy can not be obtained by just considering the contributions from interactions between two cluster molecules, which suggests of the presence of global cooperative effects (positive). these effects are reflected in smaller hydrogen bond distances and smaller oxygen-oxygen distances, as well as in greater elongations of the o-h proton donor bond with a stronger "red-shift" in the heterotetramers compared to the ethanol-water heterodimers and the ethanol dimer. the largest cooperativity effect was observed in the four hydrogen bonds arranged in the largest possible cyclic geometric pattern, where all the molecules act as proton acceptor and donor simultaneously. a similar analysis to the characterization of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers was carried out on (methanol)3-water heterotetramers, and ethanol and methanol tetramers, whose comparison showed a great similarity between all evaluated parameters for the clusters with equal geometric pattern.
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