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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15226 matches for " Marco ZAVATARELLI "
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The Adriatic basin forecasting system
Acta Adriatica , 2006,
Abstract: A regional ocean forecasting system has been implemented in the framework of the ADRIatic sea integrated COastal areaS and river basin Management system Pilot Project (ADRICOSM). The system is composed of a 5 km horizontal resolution model and an observing system collecting coastal and open ocean hydrological data. The numerical model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model using a SMOLARKIEWICZ iterative advection scheme, interactive air-sea flux computation, Po and other Adriatic rivers flow rates and is one-way nested to a general circulation model of the Mediterranean Sea. In this study the data from the observing system are used only for model validation. The results of the first operational year are shown and the model performance has been assessed based on root mean square (RMS) criteria.
The Adriatic Sea modelling system: a nested approach
M. Zavatarelli,N. Pinardi
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A modelling system for the Adriatic Sea has been built within the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project. The modelling system consists of a hierarchy of three numerical models (whole Mediterranean Sea, whole Adriatic Sea, Northern Adriatic Basin) coupled among each other by simple one-way, off-line nesting techniques, to downscale the larger scale flow field to highly resolved coastal scale fields. Numerical simulations have been carried out under climatological surface forcing. Simulations were aimed to assess the effectiveness of the nesting techniques and the skill of the system to reproduce known features of the Adriatic Sea circulation phenomenology (main circulation features, dense water formation,flow at the Otranto Strait and coastal circulation characteristics over the northern Adriatic shelf), in view of the pre-operational use of the modelling system. This paper describes the modelling system setup, and discusses the simulation results for the whole Adriatic Sea and its northern basin, comparing the simulations with the observed climatological circulation characteristics. Results obtained with the northern Adriatic model are also compared with the corresponding simulations obtained with the coarser resolution Adriatic model. Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; numerical modelling) – Oceanography: physical (general circulation)
Studying the Earth with Geoneutrinos
L. Ludhova,S. Zavatarelli
Advances in High Energy Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/425693
Abstract: Geoneutrinos, electron antineutrinos from natural radioactive decays inside the Earth, bring to the surface unique information about our planet. The new techniques in neutrino detection opened a door into a completely new interdisciplinary field of neutrino geoscience. We give here a broad geological introduction highlighting the points where the geoneutrino measurements can give substantial new insights. The status-of-art of this field is overviewed, including a description of the latest experimental results from KamLAND and Borexino experiments and their first geological implications. We performed a new combined Borexino and KamLAND analysis in terms of the extraction of the mantle geo-neutrino signal and the limits on the Earth's radiogenic heat power. The perspectives and the future projects having geo-neutrinos among their scientific goals are also discussed. 1. Introduction The newly born interdisciplinar field of neutrino geoscience takes the advantage of the technologies developed by large-volume neutrino experiments and of the achievements of the elementary particle physics in order to study the Earth interior with new probe geoneutrinos. Geoneutrinos are electron antineutrinos released in the decays of radioactive elements with lifetimes comparable with the age of the Earth and distributed through the Earth’s interior. The radiogenic heat released during the decays of these Heat Producing Elements (HPE) is in a well fixed ratio with the total mass of HPE inside the Earth. Geoneutrinos bring to the Earth’s surface an instant information about the distribution of HPE. Thus, it is, in principle, possible to extract from measured geoneutrino fluxes several geological information completely unreachable by other means. This information concerns the total abundance and distribution of the HPE inside the Earth and thus the determination of the fraction of radiogenic heat contribute to the total surface heat flux. Such a knowledge is of critical importance for understanding complex processes such as the mantle convection, the plate tectonics, and the geodynamo (the process of generation of the Earth’s magnetic field), as well as the Earth formation itself. Currently, only two large-volume, liquid-scintillator neutrino experiments, KamLAND in Japan and Borexino in Italy, have been able to measure the geoneutrino signal. Antineutrinos can interact only through the weak interactions. Thus, the cross-section of the inverse-beta decay detection interaction: is very low. Even a typical flux of the order of geoneutrinos ? leads to only a hand-full number of
Calibration and validation of a one-dimensional complex marine biogeochemical flux model in different areas of the northern Adriatic shelf
M. Vichi,P. Oddo,M. Zavatarelli,A. Coluccelli
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper we show results from numerical simulations carried out with a complex biogeochemical fluxes model coupled with a one-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamical model and implemented at three different locations of the northern Adriatic shelf. One location is directly affected by the Po River influence, one has more open-sea characteristics and one is located in the Gulf of Trieste with an intermediate behavior; emphasis is put on the comparison with observations and on the functioning of the northern Adriatic ecosystem in the three areas. The work has been performed in a climatological context and has to be considered as preliminary to the development of three-dimensional numerical simulations. Biogeochemical model parameterizations have been ameliorated with a detailed description of bacterial substrate utilization associated with the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM), in order to improve the models capability in capturing the observed DOM dynamics in the basin. The coupled model has been calibrated and validated at the three locations by means of climatological data sets. Results show satisfactory model behavior in simulating local seasonal dynamics in the limit of the available boundary conditions and the one-dimensional implementation. Comparisons with available measurements of primary and bacterial production and bacterial abundances have been performed in all locations. Model simulated rates and bacterial dynamics are in the same order of magnitude of observations and show a qualitatively correct time evolution. The importance of temperature as a factor controlling bacteria efficiency is investigated with sensitivity experiments on the model parameterizations. The different model behavior and pelagic ecosystem structure developed by the model at the three locations can be attributed to the local hydrodynamical features and interactions with external inputs of nutrients. The onset of the winter/spring bloom in the climatological simulations is primarily driven by local stratification conditions. During summer the major carbon-transfer pathway developed by the model is the microbial web at all the sites, indicating that a large fraction of organic matter is processed through bacteria during productive periods, as suggested by field observations. The site directly influenced by riverine inputs differs from the others, showing a more alternate shifting among trophic pathways. Applying the conceptual scheme proposed by Legendre and Rassoulzadegan (Ophelia, 41, 153-172, 1995), it can be recognized as a herbivorous spring phase
Reactor Antineutrinos Signal all over the world
B. Ricci,F. Mantovani,M. Baldoncini,J. Esposito,L. Ludhova,S. Zavatarelli
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We present an updated estimate of reactor antineutrino signal all over the world, with particular attention to the sites proposed for existing and future geo-neutrino experiment. In our calculation we take into account the most updated data on Thermal Power for each nuclear plant, on reactor antineutrino spectra and on three neutrino oscillation mechanism.
Peri-Urban Transformations in Agricultural Landscapes of Perugia, Italy  [PDF]
Marco Vizzari
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2011.32011
Abstract: Urban fringes represent very complex landscapes because of their proximity and mutual dependency with cities and rural areas. These landscapes may be considered as transition entities characterized by fuzzy boundaries. An uncontrolled development of urban sprawl and land use changes in these areas may deter- mine negative impacts on all natural, economic and social components. Thus, urban fringes assume a key-role in modern landscape analysis, planning and management. Landscape analysis of these interfaces, as this study shows, can be effectively supported by GIS spatial modelling. The Settlement Density Index (SDI), developed through GIS spatial analysis techniques, expresses punctually the territorial gradients generated by the presence of settlements and allows the identification of the urban fringes in the two periods under invest-tigation. These areas are then characterized and analyzed quantitatively using detailed land use data. The comparison of the diachronic information highlights the transformations of peri-urban landscapes that appear mainly related to the modifications of spatial configuration of urban areas and to the changes of agricultural systems.
Multiple Lorentz Groups—A Toy Model for Superluminal Muon Neutrinos  [PDF]
Marco Schreck
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.310177
Abstract: In this article an idea is presented, which allows for the explanation of superluminal muon neutrinos. It is based on the introduction of a new superluminal, massless gauge boson coupling to the neutrino only, but not to other standard model particles. The model is discussed with regard to the Supernova 1987 (SN 1987) velocity bound on electron antineutrinos and the Cohen-Glashow constraint on superluminal neutrino propagation. The latter can be circumvented if— within the framework of the model—a sterile neutrino mixing with the active neutrino mass eigenstates is introduced. The suggestion of a sterile neutrino accounting for superluminal neutrinos has already been proposed in several papers. It is possible to choose mixing angles with the sterile neutrino sector such that the model respects both the SN 1987 bound and the muon neutrino travels superluminally.
Concept for Floating and Submersible Wireless Sensor Network for Water Basin Monitoring  [PDF]
Marco Allegretti
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2014.66011
It will show the feasibility of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) devoted to monitoring water basin, river, lake, and sea both on the surface and in depth. The swarm of floating probes can be programmed to periodically sink some tens of meters below the surface, collecting data, characterizing water properties and then coming to the surface again. The life span of the probes may be assured by an on-board power supply or through batteries recharged by solar cells. The basic idea of the WSN is reported together with a detailed analysis of the operational constraints, the energy requirements, and the electronic and mechanical discussion.
Considerations on Mechanism Designs as Suitable for Cultural Heritage Evaluation  [PDF]
Marco Ceccarelli
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.24022
Abstract: Technological developments can be considered part of Cultural Heritage that deserves to be preserved for historical records and memories to a large public. Such a preservation can be also useful from technical viewpoints both to track past evolutions and to understand future trends. In this paper both designs and approaches for mechanism design are illustrated as worthy of being considered elements of Cultural Heritage with both above mentioned values mainly but not only for engineers. Examples of mechanism inventions and design algorithms both for whole machines and mechanism components are reported to show how technical achievements are and can be considered for Cultural Heritage in a broad sense and application, not only for technical use.
Fragility Curves of Existing RC Buildings Based on Specific Structural Performance Levels  [PDF]
Marco Vona
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2014.42011
Abstract: In seismic risk mitigation policies, fragility functions of existing buildings play a fundamental role. In this paper, a procedure to develop analytical fragility curves for Moment Resisting Frame Reinforced Concrete buildings is presented. The design of the selected building typologies was performed according to the codes at the time of construction using force-based methods and the state of the practice at the time of construction. A total of 216 building classes were defined, considering different ages, number of storeys, infill panels, plan dimensions, beam stiffness, and concrete strength. The investigated buildings can be considered low-engineered buildings, using no seismic codes or old seismic codes. The seismic capacity of the selected models representing the existing RC buildings has been evaluated through non-linear dynamic simulations. Seismic response has been analyzed, considering various peak and integral intensity measures and various response parameters, such as ductility demands and Interstorey Drift Ratio (IDR). A new relationship among structural performance, damage levels and interstorey drift ratios for each studied type is introduced, which is calibrated using the damage levels described in EMS98. It is important to highlight that in this study, different thresholds of IDR have been associated with different typologies, considering their different ductility member levels after their different structural responses. Fragility Curves (FCs) for the studied structural types are set up, developed and discussed.
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