Abstract:
A model for dihadron fragmentation functions is briefly outlined, that describes the fragmentation of a quark in two unpolarized hadrons. The parameters are tuned to the output of the PYTHIA event generator for two-hadron semi-inclusive production in deep inelastic scattering at HERMES. Then, predictions are made for the unknown polarized fragmentation function and the related single-spin asymmetry in the azimuthal distribution of $\pi^+ \pi^-$ pairs in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized targets at HERMES and COMPASS. This asymmetry can be used to extract the quark transversity distribution.

Abstract:
We investigate the properties of interference fragmentation functions arising from the emission of two leading hadrons inside the same jet for semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering. Using an extended spectator model we give numerical estimates for the example of the fragmentation into a proton-pion pair with its invariant mass on the Roper resonance.

Abstract:
We have updated our extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. The most recent COMPASS data for proton and deuteron targets, complemented by previous HERMES data on the proton, make it possible to perform a flavor separation of the valence components of the transversity distribution, using di-hadron fragmentation functions taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. The $e^+ e^-$ data from BELLE have been reanalyzed to reach a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function. Our results represent the most accurate estimate of the uncertainties on the valence components of the transversity distribution currently available.

Abstract:
The determination of quark angular momentum requires the knowledge of the generalized parton distribution E in the forward limit. We assume a connection between this function and the Sivers transverse-momentum distribution, based on model calculations and theoretical considerations. Using this assumption, we show that it is possible to fit at the same time nucleon magnetic moments and semi-inclusive single-spin asymmetries. This imposes additional constraints on the Sivers function and opens a plausible way to quantifying quark angular momentum.

Abstract:
We study the production of hadron pairs in proton-proton collisions, selecting pairs with large total transverse momentum with respect to the beam, and small relative transverse momentum, i.e., belonging to a single jet with large transverse momentum. We describe the process in terms of dihadron fragmentation functions. We consider the production of one pair in polarized collisions (with one transversely polarized proton) and the production of two pairs in unpolarized collisions. In the first case, we discuss how to observe the quark transversity distribution in connection with a specific class of dihadron fragmentation functions, named interference fragmentation functions. In the second case, we suggest how to determine the latter and also how to observe linearly polarized gluons.

Abstract:
The determination of quark angular momentum requires the knowledge of the generalized parton distribution $E$ in the forward limit. We assume a connection between this function and the Sivers transverse-momentum distribution, based on model calculations and theoretical considerations. Using this assumption, we show that it is possible to fit at the same time nucleon anomalous magnetic moments and semi-inclusive single-spin asymmetries. This imposes additional constraints on the Sivers function and opens a plausible way to quantifying the quark angular momentum.

Abstract:
The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest access to the poorly known twist-3 parton distribution $e(x)$, which is intimately related to the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. When sensitive to details of transverse momentum dynamics of partons, the di-hadron fragmentation functions for a longitudinally polarized quark can be connected to the longitudinal jet handedness to explore possible effects due to $CP-$violation of the QCD vacuum. In this review, we outline the formalism of di-hadron fragmentation functions, we discuss different observables where they appear and we present measurements and future worldwide plans.

Abstract:
We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, $M_h$, of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on $M_h$-integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies.

Abstract:
We present preliminary results for an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets by HERMES and COMPASS allow for a flavor separation of the valence components of transversity, while di-hadron fragmentation functions are taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. The latter data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. After encoding this piece of information into the deep-inelastic scattering cross section, the transversity has been re-extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for proton target. This picture represents the current most realistic estimate of the uncertainties on our knowledge of transversity. The preliminary results indicate that the valence up component seems smaller and with a narrower error band than in previous extraction.

Abstract:
We present an extraction of the valence transversity parton distributions based on an analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets. Recently released data for proton and deuteron targets at HERMES and COMPASS permit a flavor separation of valence transversities. The present extraction is performed in the framework of collinear factorization, where dihadron fragmentation functions are involved. The latter are taken from a previous analysis of electron-positron annihilation measurements.