Abstract:
Cognitive radio methodologies have the potential to dramatically increase the throughput of wireless systems. Herein, control strategies which enable the superposition in time and frequency of primary and secondary user transmissions are explored in contrast to more traditional sensing approaches which only allow the secondary user to transmit when the primary user is idle. In this work, the optimal transmission policy for the secondary user when the primary user adopts a retransmission based error control scheme is investigated. The policy aims to maximize the secondary users' throughput, with a constraint on the throughput loss and failure probability of the primary user. Due to the constraint, the optimal policy is randomized, and determines how often the secondary user transmits according to the retransmission state of the packet being served by the primary user. The resulting optimal strategy of the secondary user is proven to have a unique structure. In particular, the optimal throughput is achieved by the secondary user by concentrating its transmission, and thus its interference to the primary user, in the first transmissions of a primary user packet. The rather simple framework considered in this paper highlights two fundamental aspects of cognitive networks that have not been covered so far: (i) the networking mechanisms implemented by the primary users (error control by means of retransmissions in the considered model) react to secondary users' activity; (ii) if networking mechanisms are considered, then their state must be taken into account when optimizing secondary users' strategy, i.e., a strategy based on a binary active/idle perception of the primary users' state is suboptimal.

Abstract:
Cooperative techniques have been shown to significantly improve the performance of wireless systems. Despite being a mature technology in single communication link scenarios, their implementation in wider, and practical, networks poses several challenges which have not been fully identified and understood so far. In this two-part paper, the implementation of cooperative communications in non-centralized ad hoc networks with sensing-based channel access is extensively discussed. Both analysis and simulation are employed to provide a clear understanding of the mutual influence between the link layer contention mechanism and collaborative protocols. Part I of this work focuses on reactive cooperation, in which relaying is triggered by packet delivery failure events, while Part II addresses proactive approaches, preemptively initiated by the source based on channel state information. Results show that sensing-based channel access significantly hampers the effectiveness of cooperation by biasing the spatial distribution of available relays, and by inducing a level of spatial and temporal correlation of the interference that diminishes the diversity improvement on which cooperative gains are founded. Moreover, the efficiency reduction entailed by several practical protocol issues related to carrier sense multiple access which are typically neglected in the literature is thoroughly investigated.

Abstract:
This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively allocated cooperative links, as unpredicted births and deaths of surrounding transmissions may force relays to abort their support and/or change the maximum achievable rate at the intended receiver. As a general conclusion, our work extensively suggests that CSMA-based link layers are not apt to effectively support cooperative strategies in large-scale non-centralized ad hoc networks.

Abstract:
A novel iterative algorithm for the efficient computation of the intersection areas of an arbitrary number of circles is presented. The algorithm, based on a trellis-structure, hinges on two geometric results which allow the existence-check and the computation of the area of the intersection regions generated by more than three circles by simple algebraic manipulations of the intersection areas of a smaller number of circles. The presented algorithm is a powerful tool for the performance analysis of wireless networks, and finds many applications, ranging from sensor to cellular networks. As an example of practical application, an insightful study of the uplink outage probability of in a wireless network with cooperative access points as a function of the transmission power and access point density is presented.

Abstract:
The problem of state tracking with active observation control is considered for a system modeled by a discrete-time, finite-state Markov chain observed through conditionally Gaussian measurement vectors. The measurement model statistics are shaped by the underlying state and an exogenous control input, which influence the observations' quality. Exploiting an innovations approach, an approximate minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) filter is derived to estimate the Markov chain system state. To optimize the control strategy, the associated mean-squared error is used as an optimization criterion in a partially observable Markov decision process formulation. A stochastic dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to solve for the optimal solution. To enhance the quality of system state estimates, approximate MMSE smoothing estimators are also derived. Finally, the performance of the proposed framework is illustrated on the problem of physical activity detection in wireless body sensing networks. The power of the proposed framework lies within its ability to accommodate a broad spectrum of active classification applications including sensor management for object classification and tracking, estimation of sparse signals and radar scheduling.

Abstract:
We study optimal transmission strategies in interfering wireless networks, under Quality of Service constraints. A buffered, dynamic network with multiple sources is considered, and sources use a retransmission strategy in order to improve packet delivery probability. The optimization problem is formulated as a Markov Decision Process, where constraints and objective functions are ratios of time-averaged cost functions. The optimal strategy is found as the solution of a Linear Fractional Program, where the optimization variables are the steady-state probability of state-action pairs. Numerical results illustrate the dependence of optimal transmission/interference strategies on the constraints imposed on the network.

Abstract:
In the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture, a Control Unit (CU) implements the baseband processing functionalities of a cluster of Base Stations (BSs), which are connected to it through a fronthaul network. This architecture enables centralized processing at the CU, and hence the implementation of enhanced interference mitigation strategies, but it also entails an increased decoding latency due to the transport on the fronthaul network. The fronthaul latency may offset the benefits of centralized processing when considering the performance of protocols at layer 2 and above. This letter studies the impact of fronthaul latency on the performance of standard Automatic Retransmission reQuest (ARQ) protocols, namely Stop and Wait, Go-Back-N and Selective Repeat. The performance of the C-RAN architecture in terms of throughput and efficiency is compared to the that of a conventional cellular system with local processing, as well as with that of a proposed hybrid C-RAN system in which BSs can perform decoding. The dynamics of the system are modeled as a multi-dimensional Markov process that includes sub-chains to capture the temporal correlation of interference and channel gains. Numerical results yield insights into the impact of system parameters such as fronthaul latency and signal-to-interference ratio on different ARQ protocols.

Abstract:
This paper introduces a novel technique for access by a cognitive Secondary User (SU) using best-effort transmission to a spectrum with an incumbent Primary User (PU), which uses Type-I Hybrid ARQ. The technique leverages the primary ARQ protocol to perform Interference Cancellation (IC) at the SU receiver (SUrx). Two IC mechanisms that work in concert are introduced: Forward IC, where SUrx, after decoding the PU message, cancels its interference in the (possible) following PU retransmissions of the same message, to improve the SU throughput; Backward IC, where SUrx performs IC on previous SU transmissions, whose decoding failed due to severe PU interference. Secondary access policies are designed that determine the secondary access probability in each state of the network so as to maximize the average long-term SU throughput by opportunistically leveraging IC, while causing bounded average long-term PU throughput degradation and SU power expenditure. It is proved that the optimal policy prescribes that the SU prioritizes its access in the states where SUrx knows the PU message, thus enabling IC. An algorithm is provided to optimally allocate additional secondary access opportunities in the states where the PU message is unknown. Numerical results are shown to assess the throughput gain provided by the proposed techniques.

Abstract:
Energy storage is a fundamental component for the development of sustainable and environment-aware technologies. One of the critical challenges that needs to be overcome is preserving the State of Health (SoH) in energy harvesting systems, where bursty arrival of energy and load may severely degrade the battery. Tools from Markov process and Dynamic Programming theory are becoming an increasingly popular choice to control dynamics of these systems due to their ability to seamlessly incorporate heterogeneous components and support a wide range of applications. Mapping aging rate measures to fit within the boundaries of these tools is non-trivial. In this paper, a framework for modeling and controlling the aging rate of batteries based on Markov process theory is presented. Numerical results illustrate the tradeoff between battery degradation and task completion delay enabled by the proposed framework.

Abstract:
Social network modeling is generally based on graph theory, which allows for study of dynamics and emerging phenomena. However, in terms of neighborhood, the graphs are not necessarily adapted to represent complex interactions, and the neighborhood of a group of vertices can be inferred from the neighborhoods of each vertex composing that group. In our study, we consider that a group has to be considered as a complex system where emerging phenomena can appear. In this paper, a formalism is proposed to resolve this problematic by modeling groups in social networks using pretopology as a generalization of the graph theory. After giving some definitions and examples of modeling, we show how some measures used in social network analysis (degree, betweenness, and closeness) can be also generalized to consider a group as a whole entity. 1. Introduction Network modeling is an area of research which covers several domains like computer sciences, physics, sociology, or biology. In social networks modeling, graphs are often used to describe the links representing relationships or flows between entities [1]. Based on graph theory, the studies consider in most cases individuals as single elements, a group being formed by several persons interacting with each other. Most of the few works on modeling groups in social networks consider a group as a combination of persons [2], not as a whole entity. As social network analysis leads to centrality notion and others sociometric features, what about group centrality? The centrality of a vertex in a graph is widely used to determine the relative “importance” of this vertex within the network [3]. Centrality measures enable us to find users who are extensively involved in relationships with other network members. There are different centralities such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, or closeness centrality. The problem we face is the following: analyzing a vertex can be done with this kind of measure, but if we analyze a group of persons using the same measure, we will have no particular emergence of characteristics as the union property of the neighborhoods in a graph is preserved. As social networks are complex networks [4–6], emergence of phenomena can occur [7], and the behavior of a group of persons can be different from the “sum” of the person behaviors composing the group. Some work tried to capture the different scales of a network, and a group can be viewed as a community [8]; thus, in our opinion, graph theory only is inadequate to model all complex interactions occurring in a social network. Some