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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15198 matches for " Marco Lagi "
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Syncope and Hypoglycemia  [PDF]
Alfonso Lagi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.22023
Abstract: Objective: This review focuses on syncope in diabetic patients who suffer from hypoglycemia. Clinically, transient loss of consciousness during hypoglycemia appears similar to vasovagal syncope. Research Design and Methods: Current understanding of this problem is based on physicians’ personal experiences as well as on published case reports. It is difficult to explain a temporary loss of consciousness as a result of hypoglycemia. Demonstration that hypoglycemia can be transient, with the patient suffering from neuroglycopenia without autonomic symptoms due to delayed counterregulation, might be a first step in confirming that a diabetic patient suffered from a transient loss of consciousness with spontaneous recovery. Results: Hypoglycemic syncope is uncommon, affecting 1.9% of diabetic patients using insulin therapy. It is characterized clinically by brief periods of unconsciousness with slow recovery and without loss of postural muscle tone. The difficulty in correlating loss of consciousness to hypoglycemia arises from mismatching symptoms, that is, there may be mental symptoms such as confusion, loss of memory or consciousness, in the absence of autonomic manifestations such as sweating or blurred vision. There are currently no established glucose values that define the level of hypoglycemia that causes loss of consciousness. Conclusion: Hypoglycemic syncope should be suspected in older diabetic patients with preserved postural tone, usually but not always using insulin therapy, who show a slow recovery from transient loss of consciousness with persisting neurological impairment and low blood glucose levels.
Carotid Sinus Hypersensibility: A Concept on the Way  [PDF]
Alfonso Lagi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.41002
Abstract: This review examines the pathogenesis of Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity (CSH) by describing the different hypotheses that exist in literature. One hypothesis is that CSH is not a disease of the heart but of the central and/or peripheral nerv- ous system where the heart is the victim. CSH is associated with cognitive disturbance, vasovagal syncope and ortho- static hypotension. Another hypothesis is that the CSH is considered a syndrome or a symptom associated with different diseases so as to require a diagnostic framework. This Hypothesis is the basis of frequent recurrences that are associated with the pacemaker implant therapy only.
The European debt crisis: Defaults and market equilibrium
Marco Lagi,Yaneer Bar-Yam
Quantitative Finance , 2012,
Abstract: During the last two years, Europe has been facing a debt crisis, and Greece has been at its center. In response to the crisis, drastic actions have been taken, including the halving of Greek debt. Policy makers acted because interest rates for sovereign debt increased dramatically. High interest rates imply that default is likely due to economic conditions. High interest rates also increase the cost of borrowing and thus cause default to be likely. If there is a departure from equilibrium, increasing interest rates may contribute to---rather than be caused by---default risk. Here we build a quantitative equilibrium model of sovereign default risk that, for the first time, is able to determine if markets are consistently set by economic conditions. We show that over the period 2001-2012, the annually-averaged long-term interest rates of Greek debt are quantitatively related to the ratio of debt to GDP. The relationship shows that the market consistently expects default to occur if the Greek debt reaches twice the GDP. Our analysis does not preclude non-equilibrium increases in interest rates over shorter timeframes. We find evidence of such non-equilibrium fluctuations in a separate analysis. According to the equilibrium model, the date by which a half-default must occur is March 2013, almost one year after the actual debt write-down. Any acceleration of default by non-equilibrium fluctuations is significant for national and international interventions. The need for austerity or bailout costs would be reduced if market regulations were implemented to increase market stability to prevent short term interest rate increases. We similarly evaluate the timing of projected defaults without interventions for Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy to be March 2013, April 2014, May 2014, and July 2016, respectively. All defaults are mitigated by planned interventions.
Logarithmic decay in single-particle relaxations of hydrated lysozyme powder
Marco Lagi,Piero Baglioni,Sow-Hsin Chen
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.108102
Abstract: We present the self-dynamics of protein amino acids of hydrated lysozyme powder around the physiological temperature by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The self-intermediate scattering functions (SISF) of the amino acid residue center-of-mass and of the protein hydrogen atoms display a logarithmic decay over 3 decades of time, from 2 picoseconds to 2 nanoseconds, followed by an exponential alpha-relaxation. This kind of slow dynamics resembles the relaxation scenario within the beta-relaxation time range predicted by the mode coupling theory (MCT) in the vicinity of higher-order singularities. These results suggest a strong analogy between the single-particle dynamics of the protein and the dynamics of colloidal, polymeric and molecular glass-forming liquids.
The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East
Marco Lagi,Karla Z. Bertrand,Yaneer Bar-Yam
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Social unrest may reflect a variety of factors such as poverty, unemployment, and social injustice. Despite the many possible contributing factors, the timing of violent protests in North Africa and the Middle East in 2011 as well as earlier riots in 2008 coincides with large peaks in global food prices. We identify a specific food price threshold above which protests become likely. These observations suggest that protests may reflect not only long-standing political failings of governments, but also the sudden desperate straits of vulnerable populations. If food prices remain high, there is likely to be persistent and increasing global social disruption. Underlying the food price peaks we also find an ongoing trend of increasing prices. We extrapolate these trends and identify a crossing point to the domain of high impacts, even without price peaks, in 2012-2013. This implies that avoiding global food crises and associated social unrest requires rapid and concerted action.
Evidence of market manipulation in the financial crisis
Vedant Misra,Marco Lagi,Yaneer Bar-Yam
Quantitative Finance , 2011,
Abstract: We provide direct evidence of market manipulation at the beginning of the financial crisis in November 2007. The type of manipulation, a "bear raid," would have been prevented by a regulation that was repealed by the Securities and Exchange Commission in July 2007. The regulation, the uptick rule, was designed to prevent manipulation and promote stability and was in force from 1938 as a key part of the government response to the 1929 market crash and its aftermath. On November 1, 2007, Citigroup experienced an unusual increase in trading volume and decrease in price. Our analysis of financial industry data shows that this decline coincided with an anomalous increase in borrowed shares, the selling of which would be a large fraction of the total trading volume. The selling of borrowed shares cannot be explained by news events as there is no corresponding increase in selling by share owners. A similar number of shares were returned on a single day six days later. The magnitude and coincidence of borrowing and returning of shares is evidence of a concerted effort to drive down Citigroup's stock price and achieve a profit, i.e., a bear raid. Interpretations and analyses of financial markets should consider the possibility that the intentional actions of individual actors or coordinated groups can impact market behavior. Markets are not sufficiently transparent to reveal even major market manipulation events. Our results point to the need for regulations that prevent intentional actions that cause markets to deviate from equilibrium and contribute to crashes. Enforcement actions cannot reverse severe damage to the economic system. The current "alternative" uptick rule which is only in effect for stocks dropping by over 10% in a single day is insufficient. Prevention may be achieved through improved availability of market data and the original uptick rule or other transaction limitations.
UPDATE July 2012 | The Food Crises: The US Drought
Marco Lagi,Yavni Bar-Yam,Yaneer Bar-Yam
Quantitative Finance , 2012,
Abstract: Recent droughts in the midwestern United States threaten to cause global catastrophe driven by a speculator amplified food price bubble. Here we show the effect of speculators on food prices using a validated quantitative model that accurately describes historical food prices. During the last six years, high and fluctuating food prices have lead to widespread hunger and social unrest. While a relative dip in food prices occurred during the spring of 2012, a massive drought in the American Midwest in June and July threatens to trigger another crisis. In a previous paper, we constructed a model that quantitatively agreed with food prices and demonstrated that, while the behavior could not be explained by supply and demand economics, it could be parsimoniously and accurately described by a model which included both the conversion of corn into ethanol and speculator trend following. An update to the original paper in February 2012 demonstrated that the model previously published was predictive of the ongoing price dynamics, and anticipated a new food crisis by the end of 2012 if adequate policy actions were not implemented. Here we provide a second update, evaluating the effects of the current drought on global food prices. We find that the drought may trigger the expected third food price bubble to occur sooner, before new limits to speculation are scheduled to take effect. Reducing the amount of corn that is being converted to ethanol may address the immediate crisis. Over the longer term, market stabilization requires limiting financial speculation.
South African Riots: Repercussion of the Global Food Crisis and US Drought
Yavni Bar-Yam,Marco Lagi,Yaneer Bar-Yam
Quantitative Finance , 2013,
Abstract: High and volatile global food prices have led to food riots and played a critical role in triggering the Arab Spring revolutions in recent years. The severe drought in the US in the summer of 2012 led to a new increase in food prices. Through the fall, they remained at a threshold above which the riots and revolutions had predominantly occurred. Global prices at this level create conditions where an exacerbating local circumstance can trigger unrest. Global corn (maize) prices reached new highs, and countries that depend mostly on maize are more likely to experience high local food prices and associated pressures toward social unrest. Here we analyze the conditions in South Africa, which is a heavily maize-dependent country. Coinciding with increased consumer food indices this summer, massive labor strikes in mining and agriculture have led to the greatest single incident of social violence since the fall of apartheid in 1994. Worker demands for dramatic pay increases reflect that their wages have not kept up with drastic increases in the prices of necessities, especially food. Without attention to the global food price situation, more incidents of food-based social instability are likely to arise. Other countries that have manifested food-related protests and riots in 2012 include Haiti and Argentina. Moreover, these cases of unrest are just the most visible symptom of widespread suffering of poor populations worldwide due to elevated food prices. Policy decisions that would directly impact food prices are decreasing the conversion of maize to ethanol in the US, and reimposing regulations on commodity futures markets to prevent excessive speculation, which we have shown causes bubbles and crashes in these markets. Absent such policy actions, governments and companies should track and mitigate the impact of high and volatile food prices on citizens and employees.
Hans Kelsen and the Austrian Constitutional Court (1918-1929)
Lagi,Sara;
Co-herencia , 2012,
Abstract: this article intends to examine hans kelsen's contribution to the establishing of the first austrian constitutional court, analyzing the key differences between kelsen's model of constitutional court and that of his german mentor, the jurist georg jellinek, while focusing on the concrete austrian historical-political background which had an impact on the shaping and even on the collapse of the constitutional court. unlike most of the works dedicated to such topic, this article pays a great attention to the historicalpolitical dimension behind kelsen's efforts to create a serious system of juridical defense of the austrian constitution. in this sense, kelsen's constitutional court is analyzed in reference to the problem of protecting the young austrian democracy - emerged from the ashes of the habsburg empire - against its numerous opponents. a problem which is at the core of kelsen's works on democracy published in the 20s.
Hans Kelsen: pensador político
Sara Lagi
Araucaria , 2011,
Abstract: Hasta la publicación de Sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia, Hans Kelsen era solo conocido como experto en derecho público. El valor de este artículo de Lagi radica en rescatar de la obra kelseniana un aspecto casi por completo olvidado por la crítica, a saber, sus análisis sobre el significado y las características de la democracia parlamentaria en los Estados modernos. Se aborda la cuestión no solo desde el debate teórico sino también desde su contexto histórico político. La teoría política de Kelsen es considerada una parte integral de su doctrina central, presentada en Teoría pura del derecho, su obra más conspicua. Un análisis del trabajo sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia nos restituye la imagen de un Kelsen como original pensador político. Se analizan las dos ediciones de Sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia (1920 1929) con estos propósitos: comprender por qué decidió dedicarse a la teoría de la democracia un teórico que rigurosamente defendió la separación de la esfera jurídica respecto de la historia, la filosofía y la política; y por qué no se limitó a explicar la esencia de la democracia sino que decidió concentrarse en clarificar qué se entiende por valor de la democracia.
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