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Effects of Caffeine on the Organism—Literature Review  [PDF]
Marcio Antonio Ferreira Camargo, Carmen Aparecida Cardoso Maia Camargo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105265
Abstract:
Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant. Caffeine is known to in-crease energetic metabolism throughout the brain, but it also decreases cerebral blood flow, inducing relative cerebral hypoperfusion. Caffeine ac-tivates norepinephrine neurons and appears to affect the local release of dopamine. Many of the warning effects of caffeine may be related to the action of methylxanthine on serotonin neurons. In this sense, this study aimed to identify the main effects of caffeine on the body. This is a literature review study addressing the main effects of caffeine on the body. In order to select the studies, an online survey of articles has been conducted on sites such as the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), using the descriptors “caffeine”, “effects of caffeine” and “methylxanthine”. We included the studies published between the years 2000 to 2018, which explicitly contemplate the evaluated aspects. In general, caffeine has effects on anxiety and sleep that vary according to individual sensitivity to methylxanthine. The central nervous system does not appear to develop a great tolerance to the effects of caffeine, although the symptoms of dependence and withdrawal are reported.
Evaluation of Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Water Used in Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Marcio Antonio Ferreira Camargo, Thaiany Aparecida Ribeiro Pereira
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104959
Abstract:
The knowledge about toxic levels of toxic heavy metals in irrigation water is very scarce and quite varied. This work aimed to evaluate the concentrations of toxic heavy metals in the lake of the Experimental Farm UEMG, Passos-MG Unit. The toxic heavy metals evaluated were Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb). The lagoon was divided into ten strategic points for sampling, each point being sampled in triplicate. The pH of the water and the concentrations of toxic heavy metals present were evaluated. PH measurements were performed on the water in natura, being measured before and after filtration. Values ranging from 6.25 to 7.75 were found. For the determinations of Cd, Cr, and Pb, an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used. The samples were treated with acid digestion. The values of toxic heavy metals found were: Cadmium: 0.727 mg/L at 0.754 mg/L; Chromium: 0.177 mg/L at 0.256 mg/L and Lead: 0.023 mg/L at 0.081 mg/L. These values are above the limit established by CONAMA 357/2005. The dangers of contamination of water by toxic heavy metals are not restricted only to the direct consumption of this water, but also to the consequences in the food chain when we refer to bioaccumulative toxicants.
Classroom: A Space of Pedagogical Interaction  [PDF]
Carmen Aparecida Cardoso Maia Camargo, Marcio Antonio Ferreira Camargo, Márcio Ferreira de Carvalho, Clere Ventura Costa Oliveira
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104958
Abstract:
Classroom is a socially instituted space of pedagogical intervention. This article aims to analyze how the interdisciplinary dialogue between teachers, in the classroom and outside of the classroom, in order to approach theory and practice in the teaching knowledge. It is part of a research project developed in 2017 in a Community Course, in the city of Passos-MG, Brazil. Based on a qualitative approach, there was an exploratory and descriptive design involving semi-structured interviews with eight teachers. Content analysis was used to treat the data. From the data found, it was evident that the general recognition of the teachers about the necessity and importance of the adequacy of teaching methods in relation to the interdisciplinarity in the teaching routine makes it a tool of approximation between the student and the learning. On the other hand, the interviewees identified some difficulties in programming interdisciplinary practices, such as understanding the importance of dialogue with content in everyday practice and the excessive daily demands of teaching work that prevent the involvement of all educators. However, they are unanimous in emphasizing the need to create joint pedagogical strategies, seeking a more meaningful knowledge for the student.
Polyurethane Foams Derived from Vegetable Oil Used in the Adsorption of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Present in Insulating Mineral Oil  [PDF]
Marcio Antonio Ferreira Camargo, Antonia Marli dos Santos, Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice, Salvador Claro Neto, Maria Diva Landgraf
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104945
Abstract:
PCBs, polychlorinated biphenyls (polychlorinated biphenyls), are the generic names given to the class of organochlorine compounds resulting from the reaction of the biphenyl group with anhydrous chlorine in the presence of a catalyst. They are toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and pose the risk of causing harm to human health and the environment. Large quantities of PCBs were produced in several countries between 1927 and 1977. In the United States the prohibition occurred in 1977. Due to high toxicity, production and marketing of PCBs have been banned worldwide since 1980. It was carried out at the Chemistry Institute of Sao Carlos—University of Sao Paulo, and developed a procedure for decontamination of mineral insulating oil containing PCBs values above 50 mg/kg. In the procedure, the contaminated oil was passed by percolation in a column containing polyurethane foam derived from vegetable oil, produced by the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Polymer Technology (GQATP), thus obtaining a 55% reduction in the levels of PCBs.
Toxoplasmosis and the laboratory: diagnosis and a constant striving for improvement
FERREIRA Antonio Walter,CAMARGO Mário E.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2002,
Abstract:
Implementa o de modelo para balanceamento de fluxos aplicado ao gerenciamento de tráfego aéreo
Bueno Borges de Souza,Li Weigang,Antonio Marcio Ferreira Crespo
Transportes , 2009,
Abstract: Este trabalho descreve um sistema de auxílio à decis o com metodologias de Teoria dos Grafos e Inteligência Artificial para dar suporte ao Gerenciamento de Fluxo de Tráfego Aéreo Brasileiro. Trata-se de um modelo de gerenciamento de fluxo baseado em grafos com adapta es heurísticas para a regula o dinamica do fluxo. O modelo fundamenta a arquitetura do Módulo de Balanceamento de Fluxo (MBF) integrante do Sistema Distribuído de Apoio a Decis o aplicado ao Gerenciamento Tático do Fluxo de Tráfego(SISCONFLUX), em desenvolvimento, e tem o objetivo de melhorar o gerenciamento do espa o aéreo nacional. O MBF foi proposto para dar suporte ao sistema em opera o no Primeiro Centro Integrado de Defesa Aérea e Controle de Tráfego Aéreo (CINDACTA I), fornecendo informa es adicionais para o processo aplicado pelos controladores a fim de amenizar a carga de trabalho e melhorar os resultados de suas a es. Usando técnicas de maximiza o de fluxo adaptados da Teoria dos Grafos, o MBF foi desenvolvido como um modelo de análise que determina o tempo de separa o entre decolagens a partir das terminais integrantes da Regi o de Informa o de V o de Brasília (FIR-BS) e distribui a folga do fluxo ao longo do espa o aéreo controlado, objetivando prevenir ou reduzir o congestionamento nos diversos setores da FIR-BS. O MBF dá suporte à regula o do fluxo de tráfego auxiliando os controladores e as outras unidades dentro do SISCONFLUX.
TOLER?NCIA AO ALUMíNIO E CARACTERíSTICAS AGRON?MICAS EM POPULA??ES HíBRIDAS DE TRIGO: ESTIMATIVAS DE VARI?NCIA, HERDABILIDADE E CORRELA??ES
Camargo, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira;Ferreira Filho, Antonio Wilson Penteado;
Scientia Agricola , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90161999000200027
Abstract: diallel crosses were made involving the cultivars: 'bh-1146', aluminum tolerant; 'iac-161', moderately aluminum tolerant, and 'anahuac', aluminum sensitive. parents, f1s, f2s and reciprocal backcrosses were tested for their seedling reaction to 6 mg/l of al3+ in nutrient solution, in laboratory conditions, and evaluated for grain yield, plant height, head length and rachis internode length at maturity, in pots, under screen house conditions in campinas, sp, brazil. narrow sense heritability estimates were moderate to high for plant height (0.638 - 0.860), moderate for aluminum tolerance (0.409 - 0.593) and head length (0.390 - 0.522) except for the hybrid 'anahuac' x 'iac-161', which presented a high value (0.851), and low to moderate for grain yield (0.054 - 0.463) and rachis internode length (0.090 - 0.595). phenotypic correlations between tolerance to al3+ and plant height, rachis internode length and grain yield were only significant for one of the hybrids. phenotypic correlations between plant height with grain yield and head length, and between head length with rachis internode length were positive and significant for all crosses, showing association between these characters. results suggest that it would be possible to select desirable plants from eventual recombinations if large segregating populations are used.
Genetic control of wheat seedling root growth
Camargo, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira;Ferreira Filho, Antonio Wilson Penteado;
Scientia Agricola , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162005000400004
Abstract: wheat cultivars should have long primary roots to allow good crop establishment, considering the short crop establishment season (april) in the state of s?o paulo, brazil, where the occurrence of water stress is frequent. this paper demonstrates the control and type of inheritance of the primary root growth trait. crosses were made between genotypes, bh-1146 and kauz "s"/iac-24 m4 with strong and reduced primary root growth, respectively. f2 and f3 generation seeds from these crosses and f2 generation seeds from the backcrosses of both parents were also obtained. seedlings from these genotypes plus the parentals were evaluated in relation to primary root growth in complete nutrient solutions containing 3.875 mg l-1 phosphorus, at ph 4.0 and a temperature of 25 ± 1°c for 10 days. control of the primary root growth trait was demonstrated to have quantitative inheritance. the degrees of dominance showed that the genes for strong root growth had a partially recessive behavior. heterosis and heterobeltiosis values were negative. the estimated broad-sense heritability for root growth indicated that a great part of the observed variation was of genetic origin. the narrow-sense heritability indicated that a great part of the total genetic variability in relation to the trait under consideration is due to a small number of genes. considering the estimated coefficient of determination, selection for strong root growth would be effective even when made in the early segregant generations after the cross.
TOLER NCIA AO ALUMíNIO E CARACTERíSTICAS AGRON MICAS EM POPULA ES HíBRIDAS DE TRIGO: ESTIMATIVAS DE VARI NCIA, HERDABILIDADE E CORRELA ES
Camargo Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira,Ferreira Filho Antonio Wilson Penteado
Scientia Agricola , 1999,
Abstract: Visando estimar a herdabilidade em sentido restrito para a tolerancia ao Al3+, altura das plantas, comprimento da espiga, comprimento do internódio da raque e produ o de gr os, bem como as correla es entre essas características, foram efetuados cruzamentos, em forma dialélica entre os cultivares 'BH-1146', tolerante ao Al3+ e de porte alto; 'IAC-161' e 'Anahuac' ambos de porte semi-an o, com média tolerancia e sensibilidade à toxicidade de Al3+, respectivamente. Plantulas representando os pais, as gera es F1 e F2 e os retrocruzamentos para ambos os pais, foram testadas para a rea o a 6 mg/L de Al3+ em solu o nutritiva. As plantas, devidamente identificadas, foram transplantadas para vasos localizados no telado. Os valores da herdabilidade em sentido restrito para a tolerancia ao Al3+ foram médios (0,409 a 0,593) e para altura de planta foram médios a altos (0,638 a 0,860) para os três híbridos avaliados. Em rela o ao comprimento da espiga, os valores foram médios para os híbridos 'BH-1146' x 'IAC-161' (0,390) e 'BH-1146' x 'Anahuac' (0,522) e alto para Anahuac x IAC-161 (0,851). Valores baixos a médios da herdabilidade em sentido restrito foram estimados para os caracteres comprimento do internódio da raque (0,090 a 0,595) e produ o de gr os (0,054 a 0,463). As correla es fenotípicas entre a tolerancia ao Al3+ somente foram associadas significativamente com altura de planta, comprimento do internódio da raque e produ o de gr os em um dos híbridos estudados e as correla es fenotípicas entre altura da planta com produ o de gr os e comprimento da espiga, e entre comprimento da espiga e comprimento do internódio da raque foram positivas e significativas em todos os cruzamentos, mostrando haver associa o entre esses caracteres, portanto, o estudo de grandes popula es F2 seria de interesse para proporcionar maior freqüência de recombinantes desejáveis.
Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites and Nanostructured Materials
Luiz Antonio Ferreira Coelho,Sergio Henrique Pezzin,Marcio Rodrigo Loos,Luis Antonio Sanchez de Almeida Prado
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/962815
Abstract:
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