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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3784 matches for " Marcela Kopacova "
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Informed consent for digestive endoscopy
Marcela Kopacova,Jan Bures
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy , 2012, DOI: 10.4253/wjge.v4.i6.227
Abstract: Informed consent is necessary in good clinical practice. It is based on the patient′s ability to understand the information about the proposed procedure, the potential consequences and complications, and alternative options. The information is written in understandable language and is fortified by verbal discussion between physician and patient. The aim is to explain the problem, answer all questions and to ensure that the patient understands the problems and is able to make a decision. The theory is clear but what happens in daily practice?
Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging
Jiri Dolezal,Marcela Kopacova
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/861619
Abstract: The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel’s diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscopy is the method of choice for detection of most lesions in the small intestine. Small intestine scintigraphies are only a complementary imaging method and can be successful, for example, for the detection of the bleeding site in the small intestine, ectopic gastric mucosa, carcinoid and its metastasis, or inflammation. Radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging is an effective imaging modality in the localisation of small intestine lesions for patients in whom other diagnostic tests have failed to locate any lesions or are not available. 1. Introduction The aim of this paper is to present current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells (RBCs) labelled by means of for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel’s diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy for carcinoid imaging, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging is an effective imaging modality in the localisation of small intestine lesions for patients in whom other diagnostic tests have failed to locate any lesions or are not available. To improve sensitivity, specificity, and location of the area of increased radioactivity abdomen SPECT/CT and PET/CT are recommended. The hybrid SPECT/CT (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) and PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) of the abdomen allow true three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and display, while at the same time improving the imaging interpretation and accuracy of scintigraphy. Reconstruction of cross-sectional slices uses filtered back or iterative projection. 2. Scintigraphy with Radiolabeled Red Blood Cells Effective and prompt therapy for acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding depends on accurate localisation of the site of haemorrhage. Anamnesis and clinical examination can often distinguish upper and lower GI bleeding. Upper GI tract and colon haemorrhage can be confirmed
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: A severe complication of liver cirrhosis
Jan Lata, Old?ich Stiburek, Marcela Kopacova
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: This report presents a survey of current knowledge concerning one of the relatively frequent and severe complications of liver cirrhosis and associated ascites-spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and present possibilities of treatment are discussed.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach
Marcela Kopacova, Ilja Tacheci, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jan Bures
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an inherited, autosomal dominant disorder distinguished by hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and pigmented mucocutaneous lesions. Prevalence of PJS is estimated from 1 in 8300 to 1 in 280 000 individuals. PJS predisposes sufferers to various malignancies (gastrointestinal, pancreatic, lung, breast, uterine, ovarian and testicular tumors). Bleeding, obstruction and intussusception are common complications in patients with PJS. Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) allows examination and treatment of the small bowel. Polypectomy using DBE may obviate the need for repeated urgent operations and small bowel resection that leads to short bowel syndrome. Prophylaxis and polypectomy of the entire small bowel is the gold standard in PJS patients. Intraoperative enteroscopy (IOE) was the only possibility for endoscopic treatment of patients with PJS before the DBE era. Both DBE and IOE facilitate exploration and treatment of the small intestine. DBE is less invasive and more convenient for the patient. Both procedures are generally safe and useful. An overall recommendation for PJS patients includes not only gastrointestinal multiple polyp resolution, but also regular lifelong cancer screening (colonoscopy, upper endoscopy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound of the pancreas, chest X-ray, mammography and pelvic examination with ultrasound in women, and testicular examination in men). Although the incidence of PJS is low, it is important for clinicians to recognize these disorders to prevent morbidity and mortality in these patients, and to perform presymptomatic testing in the first-degree relatives of PJS patients.
Double balloon enteroscopy and acute pancreatitis
Marcela Kopacova, Ilja Tacheci, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jolana Bartova, Jan Bures
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a new technique, first published and introduced into clinical practice in 2001 by Yamamoto, the inventor of this outstanding method. DBE allows complete visualization, biopsy and treatment of the small bowel. Nowadays, we have some experience of this method for evaluation of the complication rate. Severe complications are described in 1%-1.7% of patients. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication of the investigation. The incidence of acute pancreatitis after diagnostic DBE is 0.3% in most studies. More than 50 cases of acute pancreatitis have been described in the literature so far. On the contrary, hyperamylasemia after DBE seems to be a rather common condition. Association with acute pancreatitis is supposed to be possible, but not obligatory. The causal mechanism of post-DBE acute pancreatitis is uncertain, and there are several theories in the literature. The most probable cause seems to be a mechanical straining of the endoscope with over-tube on the pancreas or in the papillary area.
Probiotics in hepatology
Jan Lata,Jana Jurankova,Marcela Kopacova,Petr Vitek
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i24.2890
Abstract: The paper provides a basic review of intestinal microflora and its importance in liver diseases. The intestinal microflora has many important functions, above all to maintain the microbial barrier against established as well as potential pathogens. Furthermore, it influences the motility and perfusion of the intestinal wall, stimulates the intestinal immune system and therefore also the so-called common mucosal immune system, reducing bacterial translocation and producing vitamins. Immune homeostasis at mucosal level results from a controlled response to intestinal luminal antigens. In liver cirrhosis, there are many changes in its function, mostly an increase in bacterial overgrowth and translocation. In this review, probiotics and their indications in hepatology are generally discussed. According to recent knowledge, these preparations are indicated in clinical practice only for cases of hepatic encephalopathy. Probiotics are able to decrease the permeability of the intestinal wall, and decrease bacterial translocation and endotoxemia in animal models as well as in clinical studies, which is extremely important in the prevention of complications of liver cirrhosis and infection after liver transplantation. Probiotics could limit oxidative and inflammatory liver damage and, in some situations, improve the histological state, and thus non-alcoholic steatohepatitis could be considered as another possible indication.
Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer
Milan Vosmik, Jiri Petera, Igor Sirak, Miroslav Hodek, Petr Paluska, Jiri Dolezal, Marcela Kopacova
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer. The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches, based on recent technological advances, is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning), reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy), and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning target volume (intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy). Reduction of radiotherapy-related toxicity is fundamental to the improvement of clinical results in esophageal cancer, although the dose escalation concept is controversial.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Jan Bures, Jiri Cyrany, Darina Kohoutova, Miroslav F?rstl, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jaroslav Kvetina, Viktor Vorisek, Marcela Kopacova
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO.
Relation between Antibacterial Activity against Food Transmitted Pathogens and Total Phenolic Compounds in Grape Pomace Extracts from Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah Varieties  [PDF]
Loreto Sanhueza, Mario Tello, Marcela Vivanco, Leonora Mendoza, Marcela Wilkens
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.45029
Abstract:

Grape pomace is the main by-product of wine production that concentrates bioactive metabolites of polyphenolic nature with antibacterial activity. Since grape pomace composition varied depending on grape variety, climate, vineyard location, and winemaking technology, it is important to study the composition and antibacterial activity of each variety separately. In this study, antibacterial activity against different food pathogens was evaluated and its relation with polyphenols content was determined. Grape pomace from Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah varieties was extracted with methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), followed by sequential extractions with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antibacterial activity determined through the microdilution method, reaching over 90% of inhibition at 500 μg·ml-1 with the exception of Salmonella Typhi (70% of inhibition). Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most susceptible strains, exceeding 50% of inhibition at 62.5 μg·ml-1. Ethyl acetate fraction contains the highest phenolic concentration in both Cabernet Sauvignon (132.2 mg of GAE g-1) and Syrah (102.6 mg of GAE g-1) pomace, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antibacterial activity present in grape pomace extracts is in direct relation to the polar phenolic content, in particular that from Cabernet Sauvignon.

Effects of Conservation Tillage on Total and Aggregated Soil Organic Carbon in the Andes  [PDF]
Marcela Quintero, Nicholas B. Comerford
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.38042
Abstract:

Many Andisols of the Andes have been disturbed by traditional potato-based rotation agriculture disrupting soil structure, water retention capacity and organic matter content. This study was undertaken to investigate the contribution of conservation farming technology or reduced tillage in potato-based rotations in the Colombian Andes in order to rehabilitate total and aggregated soil organic C in disturbed organic matter-rich Andisols. Soils were sampled from farms with 7-year of reduced tillage and farms with conventional farming practices. Ultrasound energy was applied to samples to disrupt aggregation and total soil C was determined in order to investigate the amount of carbon held inside the aggregates of different soil size classes. Results indicated that reduced tillage in potato-based crop rotations increased the soil C concentration and average C content in the whole profile (≈117 cm depth) by 50 and 33% (1636 t C ha?1 vs. 1224 t C ha?1), respectively, as compared to conventional farming practices. Carbon content increased 177% in the subsoil (A2 horizon, 78 -117 cm depth, from 215 to 596 t?ha?1), although most of the soil C was in the A1 horizon (between 0 -78 cm average thickness, 1097 t?ha?1). These increases show that reduced tillage enhances C stores in Andisols which are already high in organic matter. In addition, C in aggregates represented more than 80% of the total organic matter and it was positively affected by conservation practices. The C increase was preferential in the smaller macroaggregates (<2 mm). The aggregate dispersion energy curves further suggested that C increase was occurring in microaggregates within the smaller macroaggregate fraction. Data suggested that smaller macroaggregates can be used in these soils to evaluate the influence of field management practices on soil C sequestration.

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