Capacitance for electrostatic adsorption forms
primarily within a Debye length of the electrode surface. Capacitive carbon
electrodes were derivatized with ionic groups by means of adsorbing a
surfactant in order to test the theory that attached ionic groups would exclude
co-ions and increase coulombic efficiency without the need for an added charge
barrier membrane. It has been discovered that capacitive electrodes surface
derivatized with ionic groups become polarized and intrinsically more
In this article we use
the Urban Political Ecology approach to show that by analysing governance networks we can
better understand the production of certain socio-environmental transformations
that negatively affect some social groups while benefiting others. Drawing upon
two case studies in the UK, the article explores the dialectical relationships
between different modes of urban governance on one hand and the
socio-environmental transformations fulfilled in each case study on the other
hand. The article concludes that although urban regeneration policies are
always constrained by the neoliberal established framework of power relations,
policy outputs and outcomes could be very different from one place to another,
shaping uneven socio-environmental constructions. Finally, we make some
recommendations in order to stimulate the production of more sustainable
communities in the future.
Transplantation therapy for diabetes in humans is
limited by the low availability of human donor whole pancreas or islets.
Outcomes are complicated by immunosuppressive drug toxicity. Xenotransplantation
is a strategy to overcome supply problems. Implantation of tissue obtained
early during embryogenesis is a way to reduce transplant immunogenicity. Pig
insulin is biologically active in humans. In that regard the pig is an
appropriate xenogeneic organ donor. Insulin-producing cells originating from
embryonic pig pancreas obtained very early following pancreatic primordium
formation [embryonic day 28 (E28)] engraft long-term in rhesus macaques. Endocrine
cells originating from embryonic pig pancreas transplanted in host mesentery
migrate to mesenteric lymph nodes, engraft, differentiate and improve glucose
tolerance in rhesus macaques without the need for immune suppression.
Transplantation of embryonic pig pancreas is a novel approach towards beta cell
replacement therapy that could be applicable to humans.
The prospects for renewable energy are
enhanced through the use of hydrogen energy systems in which hydrogen is an
energy carrier. As easily accessible fossil fuel supplies become scarcer and
environmental concerns increase, hydrogen is likely to become an increasingly
important chemical energy carrier. As the world’s energy sources become less
fossil fuel-based, hydrogen and electricity are expected to be the two dominant
energy carriers for the provision of end-use services, in a hydrogen economy.
Thus, hydrogen energy systems allow greater use of renewable energy resources.
In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier and hydrogen energy
systems, and their economics, are described and reviewed.
Net-zero energy buildings and communities,
which are receiving increasing interest, and the role of energy storage in them,
are described. A net-zero energy building or community is defined as one that,
in an average year, produces as much energy from renewable energy as it
consumes. Net-zero energy buildings and communities and the manner in which
energy sustainability is facilitated by them are described and examples are
given. Also, energy storage is discussed and the role and importance of energy
storage as part of net-zero buildings and communities are explained. The NSERC
Smart Net-zero Energy Buildings Research Network, a major Canadian research
effort in smart net-zero energy buildings and communities, is described.