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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12885 matches for " Marc Lecuit equal contributor "
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Induction of GADD34 Is Necessary for dsRNA-Dependent Interferon-β Production and Participates in the Control of Chikungunya Virus Infection
Giovanna Clavarino equal contributor,Nuno Cláudio equal contributor,Thérèse Couderc equal contributor,Alexandre Dalet,Delphine Judith,Voahirana Camosseto,Enrico K. Schmidt,Till Wenger,Marc Lecuit,Evelina Gatti ? ,Philippe Pierre ?
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002708
Abstract: Nucleic acid sensing by cells is a key feature of antiviral responses, which generally result in type-I Interferon production and tissue protection. However, detection of double-stranded RNAs in virus-infected cells promotes two concomitant and apparently conflicting events. The dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) phosphorylates translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α) and inhibits protein synthesis, whereas cytosolic DExD/H box RNA helicases induce expression of type I-IFN and other cytokines. We demonstrate that the phosphatase-1 cofactor, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34/Ppp1r15a), an important component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is absolutely required for type I-IFN and IL-6 production by mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to dsRNA. GADD34 expression in MEFs is dependent on PKR activation, linking cytosolic microbial sensing with the ATF4 branch of the UPR. The importance of this link for anti-viral immunity is underlined by the extreme susceptibility of GADD34-deficient fibroblasts and neonate mice to Chikungunya virus infection.
Chikungunya Virus-associated Long-term Arthralgia: A 36-month Prospective Longitudinal Study
Clémentine Schilte equal contributor,Frédérik Staikovsky equal contributor,Thérèse Couderc equal contributor,Yoann Madec,Florence Carpentier,Somar Kassab,Matthew L. Albert,Marc Lecuit,Alain Michault ?
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002137
Abstract: Background Arthritogenic alphaviruses, including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are responsible for acute fever and arthralgia, but can also lead to chronic symptoms. In 2006, a Chikungunya outbreak occurred in La Réunion Island, during which we constituted a prospective cohort of viremic patients (n = 180) and defined the clinical and biological features of acute infection. Individuals were followed as part of a longitudinal study to investigate in details the long-term outcome of Chikungunya. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients were submitted to clinical investigations 4, 6, 14 and 36 months after presentation with acute CHIKV infection. At 36 months, 22 patients with arthralgia and 20 patients without arthralgia were randomly selected from the cohort and consented for blood sampling. During the 3 years following acute infection, 60% of patients had experienced symptoms of arthralgia, with most reporting episodic relapse and recovery periods. Long-term arthralgias were typically polyarthralgia (70%), that were usually symmetrical (90%) and highly incapacitating (77%). They were often associated with local swelling (63%), asthenia (77%) or depression (56%). The age over 35 years and the presence of arthralgia 4 months after the disease onset are risk factors of long-term arthralgia. Patients with long-term arthralgia did not display biological markers typically found in autoimmune or rheumatoid diseases. These data helped define the features of CHIKV-associated chronic arthralgia and permitted an estimation of the economic burden associated with arthralgia. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that chronic arthralgia is a frequent complication of acute Chikungunya disease and suggests that it results from a local rather than systemic inflammation.
A Mouse Model for Chikungunya: Young Age and Inefficient Type-I Interferon Signaling Are Risk Factors for Severe Disease
Thérèse Couderc equal contributor,Fabrice Chrétien equal contributor,Clémentine Schilte equal contributor,Olivier Disson,Madly Brigitte,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Yasmina Touret,Georges Barau,Nadège Cayet,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Philippe Desprès,Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos,Alain Michault,Matthew L Albert equal contributor,Marc Lecuit equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0040029
Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT) adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-α/βR+/?) or totally (IFN-α/βR?/?) abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates.
Emerging Functions for the Staphylococcus aureus RNome
Julien Guillet equal contributor,Marc Hallier equal contributor,Brice Felden
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003767
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen for animals and humans, not only being one of the most frequently isolated bacteria in hospital-associated infections but also causing diseases in the community. To coordinate the expression of its numerous virulence genes for growth and survival, S. aureus uses various signalling pathways that include two-component regulatory systems, transcription factors, and also around 250 regulatory RNAs. Biological roles have only been determined for a handful of these sRNAs, including cis, trans, and cis-trans acting RNAs, some internally encoding small, functional peptides and others possessing dual or multiple functions. Here we put forward an inventory of these fascinating sRNAs; the proteins involved in their activities; and those involved in stress response, metabolisms, and virulence.
The diagnosis of infectious diseases by whole genome next generation sequencing: a new era is opening
Marc Lecuit,Marc Eloit
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2014.00025
Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles
Marc Hammarlund equal contributor,Mark T Palfreyman equal contributor,Shigeki Watanabe equal contributor,Shawn Olsen,Erik M Jorgensen
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050198
Abstract: Synaptic vesicles dock to the plasma membrane at synapses to facilitate rapid exocytosis. Docking was originally proposed to require the soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins; however, perturbation studies suggested that docking was independent of the SNARE proteins. We now find that the SNARE protein syntaxin is required for docking of all vesicles at synapses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The active zone protein UNC-13, which interacts with syntaxin, is also required for docking in the active zone. The docking defects in unc-13 mutants can be fully rescued by overexpressing a constitutively open form of syntaxin, but not by wild-type syntaxin. These experiments support a model for docking in which UNC-13 converts syntaxin from the closed to the open state, and open syntaxin acts directly in docking vesicles to the plasma membrane. These data provide a molecular basis for synaptic vesicle docking.
The Roles of APC and Axin Derived from Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Wnt Pathway
Ethan Lee equal contributor,Adrian Salic equal contributor,Roland Krüger equal contributor,Reinhart Heinrich ,Marc W Kirschner
PLOS Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000010
Abstract: Wnt signaling plays an important role in both oncogenesis and development. Activation of the Wnt pathway results in stabilization of the transcriptional coactivator β-catenin. Recent studies have demonstrated that axin, which coordinates β-catenin degradation, is itself degraded. Although the key molecules required for transducing a Wnt signal have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this pathway has been lacking. We have developed a mathematical model for the canonical Wnt pathway that describes the interactions among the core components: Wnt, Frizzled, Dishevelled, GSK3β, APC, axin, β-catenin, and TCF. Using a system of differential equations, the model incorporates the kinetics of protein–protein interactions, protein synthesis/degradation, and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. We initially defined a reference state of kinetic, thermodynamic, and flux data from experiments using Xenopus extracts. Predictions based on the analysis of the reference state were used iteratively to develop a more refined model from which we analyzed the effects of prolonged and transient Wnt stimulation on β-catenin and axin turnover. We predict several unusual features of the Wnt pathway, some of which we tested experimentally. An insight from our model, which we confirmed experimentally, is that the two scaffold proteins axin and APC promote the formation of degradation complexes in very different ways. We can also explain the importance of axin degradation in amplifying and sharpening the Wnt signal, and we show that the dependence of axin degradation on APC is an essential part of an unappreciated regulatory loop that prevents the accumulation of β-catenin at decreased APC concentrations. By applying control analysis to our mathematical model, we demonstrate the modular design, sensitivity, and robustness of the Wnt pathway and derive an explicit expression for tumor suppression and oncogenicity.
The Tumor Suppressor Gene Retinoblastoma-1 Is Required for Retinotectal Development and Visual Function in Zebrafish
Michael Gyda equal contributor,Marc Wolman equal contributor,Kristin Lorent,Michael Granato
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003106
Abstract: Mutations in the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (rb1) cause both sporadic and familial forms of childhood retinoblastoma. Despite its clinical relevance, the roles of rb1 during normal retinotectal development and function are not well understood. We have identified mutations in the zebrafish space cadet locus that lead to a premature truncation of the rb1 gene, identical to known mutations in sporadic and familial forms of retinoblastoma. In wild-type embryos, axons of early born retinal ganglion cells (RGC) pioneer the retinotectal tract to guide later born RGC axons. In rb1 deficient embryos, these early born RGCs show a delay in cell cycle exit, causing a transient deficit of differentiated RGCs. As a result, later born mutant RGC axons initially fail to exit the retina, resulting in optic nerve hypoplasia. A significant fraction of mutant RGC axons eventually exit the retina, but then frequently project to the incorrect optic tectum. Although rb1 mutants eventually establish basic retinotectal connectivity, behavioral analysis reveals that mutants exhibit deficits in distinct, visually guided behaviors. Thus, our analysis of zebrafish rb1 mutants reveals a previously unknown yet critical role for rb1 during retinotectal tract development and visual function.
Need-Based Up-Regulation of Protein Levels in Response to Deletion of Their Duplicate Genes
Alexander DeLuna equal contributor,Michael Springer equal contributor,Marc W. Kirschner,Roy Kishony
PLOS Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000347
Abstract: Many duplicate genes maintain functional overlap despite divergence over long evolutionary time scales. Deleting one member of a paralogous pair often has no phenotypic effect, unless its paralog is also deleted. It has been suggested that this functional compensation might be mediated by active up-regulation of expression of a gene in response to deletion of its paralog. However, it is not clear how prevalent such paralog responsiveness is, nor whether it is hardwired or dependent on feedback from environmental conditions. Here, we address these questions at the genomic scale using high-throughput flow cytometry of single-cell protein levels in differentially labeled cocultures of wild-type and paralog-knockout Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We find that only a modest fraction of proteins (22 out of 202) show significant up-regulation to deletion of their duplicate genes. However, these paralog-responsive proteins match almost exclusively duplicate pairs whose overlapping function is required for growth. Moreover, media conditions that add or remove requirements for the function of a duplicate gene pair specifically eliminate or create paralog responsiveness. Together, our results suggest that paralog responsiveness in yeast is need-based: it appears only in conditions in which the gene function is required. Physiologically, such need-based responsiveness could provide an adaptive mechanism for compensation of genetic, environmental, or stochastic perturbations in protein abundance.
Evolutionary Plasticity of Polycomb/Trithorax Response Elements in Drosophila Species
Arne Hauenschild equal contributor,Leonie Ringrose equal contributor ,Christina Altmutter,Renato Paro,Marc Rehmsmeier
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060261
Abstract: cis-Regulatory DNA elements contain multiple binding sites for activators and repressors of transcription. Among these elements are enhancers, which establish gene expression states, and Polycomb/Trithorax response elements (PREs), which take over from enhancers and maintain transcription states of several hundred developmentally important genes. PREs are essential to the correct identities of both stem cells and differentiated cells. Evolutionary differences in cis-regulatory elements are a rich source of phenotypic diversity, and functional binding sites within regulatory elements turn over rapidly in evolution. However, more radical evolutionary changes that go beyond motif turnover have been difficult to assess. We used a combination of genome-wide bioinformatic prediction and experimental validation at specific loci, to evaluate PRE evolution across four Drosophila species. Our results show that PRE evolution is extraordinarily dynamic. First, we show that the numbers of PREs differ dramatically between species. Second, we demonstrate that functional binding sites within PREs at conserved positions turn over rapidly in evolution, as has been observed for enhancer elements. Finally, although it is theoretically possible that new elements can arise out of nonfunctional sequence, evidence that they do so is lacking. We show here that functional PREs are found at nonorthologous sites in conserved gene loci. By demonstrating that PRE evolution is not limited to the adaptation of preexisting elements, these findings document a novel dimension of cis-regulatory evolution.
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