Abstract:
In a previous Letter (cond-mat/0106565), Goh et al have presented a numerical study of the load--or betweenness centrality--distribution in a scale-free network whose degree distribution follows a power law with a tunable exponent $\gamma$. They showed that the load $\ell$ is distributed according to a power-law with exponent $\delta$. The authors claimed that $\delta$ is universal, ie. independent of the exponent $\gamma$. In this comment, we use two different ways of checking numerically this universality and we show that it does not hold.

Abstract:
In many networks such as transportation or communication networks, distance is certainly a relevant parameter. In addition, real-world examples suggest that when long-range links are existing, they usually connect to hubs-the well connected nodes. We analyze a simple model which combine both these ingredients--preferential attachment and distance selection characterized by a typical finite `interaction range'. We study the crossover from the scale-free to the `spatial' network as the interaction range decreases and we propose scaling forms for different quantities describing the network. In particular, when the distance effect is important (i) the connectivity distribution has a cut-off depending on the node density, (ii) the clustering coefficient is very high, and (iii) we observe a positive maximum in the degree correlation (assortativity) which numerical value is in agreement with empirical measurements. Finally, we show that if the number of nodes is fixed, the optimal network which minimizes both the total length and the diameter lies in between the scale-free and spatial networks. This phenomenon could play an important role in the formation of networks and could be an explanation for the high clustering and the positive assortativity which are non trivial features observed in many real-world examples.

Abstract:
We analyze the betweenness centrality (BC) of nodes in large complex networks. In general, the BC is increasing with connectivity as a power law with an exponent $\eta$. We find that for trees or networks with a small loop density $\eta=2$ while a larger density of loops leads to $\eta<2$. For scale-free networks characterized by an exponent $\gamma$ which describes the connectivity distribution decay, the BC is also distributed according to a power law with a non universal exponent $\delta$. We show that this exponent $\delta$ must satisfy the exact bound $\delta\geq (\gamma+1)/2$. If the scale free network is a tree, then we have the equality $\delta=(\gamma+1)/2$.

Abstract:
We study strongly nonlinear disordered media using a functional method. We solve exactly the problem of a nonlinear impurity in a linear host and we obtain a Bruggeman-like formula for the effective nonlinear susceptibility. This formula reduces to the usual Bruggeman effective medium approximation in the linear case and has the following features: (i) It reproduces the weak contrast expansion to the second order and (ii) the effective medium exponent near the percolation threshold are $s=1$, $t=1+\kappa$, where $\kappa$ is the nonlinearity exponent. Finally, we give analytical expressions for previously numerically calculated quantities.

Abstract:
Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated to the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will expose thoroughly the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

Abstract:
Urban streets patterns form planar networks whose empirical properties cannot be accounted for by simple models such as regular grids or Voronoi tesselations. Striking statistical regularities across different cities have been recently empirically found, suggesting that a general and details-independent mechanism may be in action. We propose a simple model based on a local optimization process combined with ideas previously proposed in studies of leaf pattern formation. The statistical properties of this model are in good agreement with the observed empirical patterns. Our results thus suggests that in the absence of a global design strategy, the evolution of many different transportation networks indeed follow a simple universal mechanism.

Abstract:
We study the influence that population density and the road network have on each others' growth and evolution. We use a simple model of formation and evolution of city roads which reproduces the most important empirical features of street networks in cities. Within this framework, we explicitely introduce the topology of the road network and analyze how it evolves and interact with the evolution of population density. We show that accessibility issues -pushing individuals to get closer to high centrality nodes- lead to high density regions and the appearance of densely populated centers. In particular, this model reproduces the empirical fact that the density profile decreases exponentially from a core district. In this simplified model, the size of the core district depends on the relative importance of transportation and rent costs.

Abstract:
Despite the widespread availability of information concerning Public Transport from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on the multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy accessibility and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset.

Abstract:
In this article, we propose a new method to compute the effective properties of non-linear disordered media. We use the fact that the effective constants can be defined through the minimum of an energy functional. We express this minimum in terms of a path integral allowing us to use many-body techniques. We obtain the perturbation expansion of the effective constants to second order in disorder, for any kind of non-linearity. We apply our method to both cases of strong and weak non-linearities. Our results are in agreement with previous ones, and could be easily extended to other types of non-linear problems in disordered systems.

Abstract:
Detecting community structure is fundamental to clarify the link between structure and function in complex networks and is used for practical applications in many disciplines. A successful method relies on the optimization of a quantity called modularity [Newman and Girvan, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)], which is a quality index of a partition of a network into communities. We find that modularity optimization may fail to identify modules smaller than a scale which depends on the total number L of links of the network and on the degree of interconnectedness of the modules, even in cases where modules are unambiguously defined. The probability that a module conceals well-defined substructures is the highest if the number of links internal to the module is of the order of \sqrt{2L} or smaller. We discuss the practical consequences of this result by analyzing partitions obtained through modularity optimization in artificial and real networks.