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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 465605 matches for " María; Rohlfs "
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Comparison between telephone and self-administration of Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36)
García,María; Rohlfs,Izabella; Vila,Joan; Sala,Joan; Pena,Araceli; Masiá,Rafael; Marrugat,Jaume; ,;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112005000600003
Abstract: objective: the characteristics of the 36 item medical outcome short form health study survey (sf-36) questionnaire, designed as a generic indicator of health status for the general population, allow it to be self-administered or used in personal or telephone interviews. the main objective of the study was to compare the telephone and self-administered modes of sf-36 for a population from girona (spain). methods: a randomized crossover administration of the questionnaire design was used in a cardiovascular risk factor survey. of 385 people invited to participate in the survey, 351 agreed to do so and were randomly assigned to two orders of administration (i.e., telephone-self and self-telephone); 261 completed both questionnaires. scores were compared between administration modes using a paired t test. internal consistency and agreement between modalities were analyzed by respectively applying chronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients. the effect of the order of administration on the test-retest difference was analyzed by one-way anova for repeated measurements. results: physical function, physical role and social functioning received significantly lower scores when the self-administered questionnaire was used prior to the telephone survey. when the initial survey was conducted by telephone, all chronbach's alpha coefficients (except social functioning) scored over 0.70 in the self-administered modality. the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.41 to 0.83 for the telephone-self order and from 0.32 to 0.73 for the self-telephone order. no clinically significant effect was observed for the order of application. conclusions: the results of the present study suggest that the telephone-administration mode of sf-36 is equivalent to and as valid as the self-administered mode.
Género y cardiopatía isquémica
Rohlfs,Izabella; García,María del Mar; Gavaldà,Laura; Medrano,María José; Juvinyà,Dolors; Baltasar,Alicia; Saurina,Carme; Faixedas,María Teresa; Mu?oz,Dolors;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112004000800008
Abstract: physiological and pathological processes differ in men and women, depending on factors such as sex and sociological and anthropological characteristics. however, many diseases are still approached from a masculine point of view. in this respect, ischemic heart disease is one of the diseases that most clearly reflects biological differences and social inequalities. in women, the disease presents at a more advanced age, and presentation is frequently atypical with a higher prevalence of comorbidities and greater severity. consequently, treatment and outcome differ from those in men. additionally, women differ in their knowledge, and beliefs regarding ischemic heart disease, as well as in their attitudes at symptom onset. therefore, clinical practice should place significant emphasis on all these aspects in order to avoid inequalities between men and women in the correct diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and rehabilitation of ischemic heart disease.
Desigualdades en salud según la clase social en las mujeres: ?Cómo influye el tipo de medida de la clase social?
Borrell,Carme; Rohlfs,Izabella; Artazcoz,Lucía; Muntaner,Carles;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112004000800010
Abstract: classical theories of social stratification share the assumption that the family is the unit of stratification, using the man's occupation as a measure of social class. these theories were criticized by feminism, which claimed that women were not visible in class analysis. the present article aims firstly to review measurement of women's social class, secondly to review studies on the impact of different measures of social class on inequalities in health among women, and thirdly to illustrate the differences among alternative measures, using data from the barcelona health interview survey 2000 as an example. there are few studies analyzing inequalities in health among women that take into account several measures of social class; most studies have been performed in the united kingdom, although some studies have been conducted in other countries. typically, these studies compare several social class indicators: the ?conventional social class? measure, which uses the husband's occupation or tal of the head of household (a household measure); the ?individual social class? measure, which uses women's occupation, and the ?dominant social class? measure, which allocates an individual the highest social class within a household (also a household measure). the impact of the various measures on inequalities in health varies according to the study performed, but is usually greater with the conventional and dominant approaches. data from the health interview survey of barcelona 2000 show the existence of inequalities in health using these three approaches, with varied impact according to the health indicators used and women's characteristics. the ?dominant social class? measure has several advantages: it is gender-blind and is not sexist. when the dominant social class is a less privileged class (i.e. manual laborer) it means that both partners have an occupation equal to or lower than this measure. finally, this indicator is easily obtained.
Clash of kingdoms or why Drosophila larvae positively respond to fungal competitors
Marko Rohlfs
Frontiers in Zoology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-2-2
Abstract: Based on laboratory experiments in which Drosophila larvae were offered the choice between fungal-infected and uninfected food patches, larvae significantly aggregated on patches containing young fungal colonies. Grouping behaviour was also visible when larvae were offered only fungal-infected or only uninfected patches; however, larval aggregation was less strong under these conditions than in a heterogeneous environment (infected and uninfected patches).Because filamentous fungi can be deadly competitors for insect larvae on ephemeral resources, social attraction of Drosophila larvae to fungal-infected sites leading to suppression of mould growth may reflect an adaptive behavioural response that increases insect larval fitness and can thus be discussed as an anti-competitor behaviour. These observations support the hypothesis that adverse environmental conditions operate in favour of social behaviour. In a search for the underlying mechanisms of communal behaviour in Drosophila, this study highlights the necessity of investigating the role of inter-kingdom competition as a potential driving force in the evolution of spatial behaviour in insects.A common idea in animal ecology is that adverse or stressful environmental conditions facilitate the evolution of social behaviour [1]. The formation of groups across a huge number of animal taxa is thus considered to have broad implications for the benefit of individuals, including mate finding, the efficient location and use of resources, thermoregulation, energetic benefits and defence against natural enemies or competitors [2,3]. Basic proximate prerequisites for communal behaviour are cues indicating the location of conspecifics and the ability to receive and process information regarding these cues, which in turn induce inter-individual attraction [3]. Because the costs and benefits of communal behaviour typically vary with environmental conditions, the degree to which individuals are mutually attracted is regulated b
Experimental evolution of defense against a competitive mold confers reduced sensitivity to fungal toxins but no increased resistance in Drosophila larvae
Monika Trienens, Marko Rohlfs
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-206
Abstract: To examine the relationship between the ability to survive competition with toxic fungi, sensitivity to fungal toxins and resistance, we created fungal-selected (FS) replicated insect lines by exposing Drosophila melanogaster larvae to the fungal competitor Aspergillus nidulans over 26 insect generations. Compared to unselected control lines (UC), larvae from the FS lines had higher survival rates in the presence of A. nidulans indicating selection for increased protection against the fungal antagonist. In line with our expectation, FS lines were less susceptible to the A. nidulans mycotoxin Sterigmatocystin. Of particular interest is that evolved protection against A. nidulans and Sterigmatocytin was not correlated with increased insect survival in the presence of other fungi and mycotoxins. We found no evidence that FS lines were better at suppressing the expansion of fungal colonies but observed a trend towards a less detrimental effect of FS larvae on fungal growth.Antagonistic but non-pathogenic fungi favor insect variants better protected against the fungal chemical arsenal. This highlights the often proposed but experimentally underexplored importance of secondary metabolites in driving animal-fungus interactions. Instead of enhanced resistance, insect larvae tend to have evolved increased tolerance of the fungal competitor. Future studies should examine whether sensitivity to allelopathic microbial metabolites drives a trade-off between resistance and tolerance in insect external defense.The fungal kingdom contains an underexplored diversity of organisms occurring in almost all terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems [1]. Because fungi constitute an important food source for animals or act as serious competitors of them [2,3] they are assumed to have evolved defense strategies employing toxic or deterrent secondary chemicals [4-6]. Animals, in turn, may be selected for counter-adaptations that render fungal toxins less detrimental [7], thus placing a h
On equivariant Euler-Poincaré characteristic in sheaf cohomology
Steffen Kionke,Jürgen Rohlfs
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Let X be a topological Hausdorff space together with a continuous action of a finite group G. Let R be the ring of integers of a number field F. Let E be a G-sheaf of flat R-modules over X and let $\Phi$ be a G-stable paracompactifying family of supports on X. We show that under some natural cohomological finiteness conditions the Lefschetz number of the action of g in G on the cohomology $H_\Phi(X,E) \otimes_{R} F$ equals the Lefschetz number of the g-action on $H_\Phi(X^g, E_{|X^g}) \otimes_{R} F$, where $X^g$ is the set of fixed points of g in X. More generally, the class $\sum_j (-1)^j [H^j_\Phi (X,E) \otimes_R F]$ in the character group equals a sum of representations induced from irreducible F-rational representations $V_\lambda$ of $H$ where $H$ runs in the set of G-conjugacy classes of subgroups of G. The integral coefficients $m_\lambda$ in this sum are explicitly determined.
The Actinome of Dictyostelium discoideum in Comparison to Actins and Actin-Related Proteins from Other Organisms
Jayabalan M. Joseph, Petra Fey, Nagendran Ramalingam, Xiao I. Liu, Meino Rohlfs, Angelika A. Noegel, Annette Müller-Taubenberger, Gernot Gl?ckner, Michael Schleicher
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002654
Abstract: Actin belongs to the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells which harbor usually many conventional actin isoforms as well as actin-related proteins (Arps). To get an overview over the sometimes confusing multitude of actins and Arps, we analyzed the Dictyostelium discoideum actinome in detail and compared it with the genomes from other model organisms. The D. discoideum actinome comprises 41 actins and actin-related proteins. The genome contains 17 actin genes which most likely arose from consecutive gene duplications, are all active, in some cases developmentally regulated and coding for identical proteins (Act8-group). According to published data, the actin fraction in a D. discoideum cell consists of more than 95% of these Act8-type proteins. The other 16 actin isoforms contain a conventional actin motif profile as well but differ in their protein sequences. Seven actin genes are potential pseudogenes. A homology search of the human genome using the most typical D. discoideum actin (Act8) as query sequence finds the major actin isoforms such as cytoplasmic beta-actin as best hit. This suggests that the Act8-group represents a nearly perfect actin throughout evolution. Interestingly, limited data from D. fasciculatum, a more ancient member among the social amoebae, show different relationships between conventional actins. The Act8-type isoform is most conserved throughout evolution. Modeling of the putative structures suggests that the majority of the actin-related proteins is functionally unrelated to canonical actin. The data suggest that the other actin variants are not necessary for the cytoskeleton itself but rather regulators of its dynamical features or subunits in larger protein complexes.
INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI energy calibration in OSA 10
I. Caballero,J. A. Zurita Heras,F. Mattana,S. Soldi,P. Laurent,F. Lebrun,L. Natalucci,M. Fiocchi,C. Ferrigno,R. Rohlfs
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We present the new energy calibration of the ISGRI detector onboard INTEGRAL, that has been implemented in the Offline Scientific Analysis (OSA) version 10. With the previous OSA 9 version, a clear departure from stability of both W and 22Na background lines was observed after MJD 54307 (revolution ~583). To solve this problem, the energy correction in OSA 10 uses: 1) a new description for the gain depending on the time and the pulse rise time, 2) an improved temperature correction per module, and 3) a varying shape of the low threshold, corrected for the change in energy resolution. With OSA 10, both background lines show a remarkably stable behavior with a relative energy variation below 1% around the nominal position (>6% in OSA 9), and the energy reconstruction at low energies is more stable compared to previous OSA versions. We extracted Crab light curves with ISGRI in different energy bands using all available data since the beginning of the mission, and found a very good agreement with the currently operational hard X-ray instruments Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM.
Soil and Leaf Micronutrient Composition in Contrasting Habitats in Podzolized Sands of the Amazon Region  [PDF]
María Antonieta Sobrado
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.410235
Abstract:

Plant macronutrient distribution in podzolized sands of the Amazon caatinga has received attention in several studies; however, the distribution of micronutrients has not been assessed. Soil micronutrient availability has been hypothesized to reflect contrasting habitat characteristics as well as fundamental differences in substrate, and leaf micronutrient composition may reflect the macronutrient content needed to maintain balance for leaf cell functions. In this study, soil and leaf samples were obtained in a toposequence (valley, slope, and mound). Available soil micro- and macronutrients as well as total leaf content were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer and mass spectroscopy. Soil Zn (<1.41 mg·kg-1) and B (<0.31 mg·kg-1) as well as Cu (<1.33 mg·kg-1) levels were very low. Soil Mn was low in the valleys and slopes (0.62-0.87 mg·kg-1), but higher in the mound (6.59 mg·kg-1). Soil Fe (11.48-21.13 mg·kg-1) was well above the critical level in all of

Urban Simulation Models: Contributions as Analysis-Methodology in a Project of Urban Renewal*  [PDF]
María Cecilia Marengo
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23028
Abstract: The recent urban transformations produced in cities indicate the need to propose new theoretical and methodological approaches in physical planning. Based on the idea of complexity, it is required to integrate, in the analysis, multiplicity of interrelated factors involved in urban development, moreover, to develop planning tools that can incorporate variables not initially considered (for example when the norms were sanctioned) and instruments that would provide assessment alternatives to planning decisions in real time. The simulation models are suggested as tools to detect the elements, relationships and the dynamics in a simplified form that allow experiencing on the results. That is to say, a theoretical position on to a computer model is translated to investigate (in an experimental way) possible solutions derived from manipulating the variables, before the phenomenon is materialized. In the case of urban planning, this condition is of particular relevance, given the importance to anticipate unwanted effects in the intervention context that may arise when urban projects are built. The paper evaluates the application of a simulation methodology, based on the dynamics of systems and the application of software that can anticipate the effects of certain decisions in an urban renewal project in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. It applies the General Systems Theory that is a contribution to the notion of complex thought and is trans-disciplinary. Based on the idea of complex and multidimensional city, the effects of a real estate development are analyzed and conclusions on the limits and possibilities of using this tool during the processes of urban management are provided.
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