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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 497348 matches for " María del Rosario; álvarez-Hernández "
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Mutaciones asociadas con resistencia a rifampicina o isoniazida en aislamientos clínicos de M. tuberculosis de Sonora, México
Bolado-Martínez,Enrique; Pérez-Mendoza,Ansix; Alegría-Morquecho,Francisco Monserrat; Candia-Plata,María del Carmen; Aguayo-Verdugo,María del Rosario; álvarez-Hernández,Gerardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000200013
Abstract: objective: to perform the analysis of specific regions of the major genes associated with resistance to isoniazid or rifampin. materials and methods: twenty two m. tuberculosis strains, isolated from human samples obtained in sonora, mexico. specific primers for hotspots of the rpob, katg, inha genes and the ahpc-oxyr intergenic region were used. the purified pcr products were sequenced. results: mutations in the promoter of inha, the ahpc-oxyr region, and codon 315 of katg and in 451 or 456 codons of rpob, were identified. conclusions: detection of mutations not previously reported requires further genotypic analysis of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in sonora.
Megaesófago por persistencia del cuarto arco aórtico derecho en un perro pastor alemán
De Sousa-Coelho,Juan C; álvarez-Hernández,María G;
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias , 2009,
Abstract: a secondary megaesophagus, as a result of vascular ring anomalies, was diagnosed in a nine-week old female german shepherd dog, with a history of intermittent regurgitation soon after weaning, respiratory disturbances, weight loss and growth retardation. a survey thoracic radiographs and a barium esophagogram confirmed the presence of a large esophageal dilatation cranial to the base of the heart, formed by three sacculations. a month later, the patient underwent a left intercostal thoracotomy to transect the ligamentum arteriosum to release the esophageal constriction. this procedure allowed to establish the definitive diagnosis of acquired secondary megaesophagus due to persistence of the fourth right aortic arch. after surgery, a feeding method was restarted in an upright position, with a soft diet, which was maintained with slight variations on a permanent basis. the patient showed a complete remission of clinical signs, despite the persistence of the megaesophagus, reaffirming that both the surgical correction of the vascular ring and an appropriate feeding method, help in controlling the disease in the long term. a report of the clinical evolution of the patient over 11 years and the results of radiographic studies conducted throughout this period are shown.
Megaesófago por persistencia del cuarto arco aórtico derecho en un perro pastor alemán Megaesophagus due to persistence of the fourth right aortic arch in a german shepherd dog
Juan C De Sousa-Coelho,María G álvarez-Hernández
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias , 2009,
Abstract: Se diagnosticó un megaesófago secundario por anomalías de anillo vascular a una hembra, de raza Pastor Alemán, de nueve semanas de edad, con historia de regurgitación intermitente posterior al destete, problemas respiratorios, pérdida de peso y retraso en el crecimiento. Un estudio radiográfico simple de tórax y un esofagograma usando como material de contraste el bario, confirmaron la presencia de una gran dilatación esofágica craneal a la base del corazón, conformada por tres saculaciones. Un mes después, la paciente fue sometida a una toracotomía intercostal izquierda para seccionar el ligamento arterioso y liberar la constricción esofágica, lo que permitió establecer el diagnóstico definitivo de megaesófago secundario adquirido, por persistencia del cuarto arco aórtico derecho. Luego de la cirugía, se inició un método de alimentación en un plano elevado, con una dieta blanda, la cual se mantuvo con leves variaciones de manera permanente. La paciente mostró remisión completa de los signos clínicos a pesar de la persistencia del megaesófago, reafirmando que la corrección quirúrgica del anillo vascular y un método de alimentación apropiado, permiten controlar la enfermedad a largo plazo. Se presenta la evolución clínica de la paciente durante 11 a os, y los resultados de los estudios radiográficos realizados durante ese período. A secondary megaesophagus, as a result of vascular ring anomalies, was diagnosed in a nine-week old female German Shepherd dog, with a history of intermittent regurgitation soon after weaning, respiratory disturbances, weight loss and growth retardation. A survey thoracic radiographs and a barium esophagogram confirmed the presence of a large esophageal dilatation cranial to the base of the heart, formed by three sacculations. A month later, the patient underwent a left intercostal thoracotomy to transect the ligamentum arteriosum to release the esophageal constriction. This procedure allowed to establish the definitive diagnosis of acquired secondary megaesophagus due to persistence of the fourth right aortic arch. After surgery, a feeding method was restarted in an upright position, with a soft diet, which was maintained with slight variations on a permanent basis. The patient showed a complete remission of clinical signs, despite the persistence of the megaesophagus, reaffirming that both the surgical correction of the vascular ring and an appropriate feeding method, help in controlling the disease in the long term. A report of the clinical evolution of the patient over 11 years and the results of radiographic studies conduc
Exploración y caracterización de poblaciones silvestres de jitomate (Solanaceae) en tres regiones de Michoacán, México
álvarez-Hernández, Juan Carlos;Cortez-Madrigal, Hipólito;García-Ruiz, Ignacio;
Polibotánica , 2009,
Abstract: in order to characterize populations of wild tomato ("tinguaraque") in the mexican state of michoacan, field observations were made from january to september of 2007. three regions were selected: "valle de apatzingan", "valle de los reyes" and "cienega de chapala". through interviews to farmers and previous studies, more particular samplings were made in each region. the characterization included: environmental, morphological, physiological and entomological aspects. in 45% of the visited sites, populations of the wild tomato were recorded. they were located in altitudes from 314 to 1 550 m; precipitation of 751 to 1 014 mm per year, maximum and minimum temperatures of 35.2 and 11.7°c, and varied levels of soil fertility. registered populations correspond to the species solanum lycopersicum l. (var. cerasiforme), of which two groups could be distinguished: big fruits (2.12 to 2.23 x 2.41 to 2.55 cm) and small fruits (1.05 to 1.22 x 1.10 to 1.25 cm). the germination speed, expressed as the time that germinates 50% of seed was variable; ranged from 2.7 (2.5-3.0) days until 10.6 (8.6-15.6) days. with exception of a morphospecies (col: chrysomelidae: chrysomelinae), associated phytophagous insects corresponded to pest species of tomato; the principals were: whitefly (hem: aleyrodidae) and aphids complex (hem: aphididae), lyriomiza sativae blanchard and l. trifoli burgués, epitrix sp. and manduca sp. the psilid of the solanaceae bactericera cockerelli sulc. was only registered in the cienega region, while the bug cyrtopeltis notata distant, was the most insidious in tinguaraque. the diversity of environmental conditions in those that the wild populations of s. lycopersicum develop in michoacan indicates a wide diversity (ecotypes) of this species.
Prevalence and costs of malnutrition in hospitalized patients: the PREDyCES Study Prevalencia y costes de la malnutrición en pacientes hospitalizados: estudio PREDyCES
J. álvarez-Hernández,M. Planas Vila,M. León-Sanz,A. García de Lorenzo
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2012, DOI: 10.3305/nh.2012.27.4.5986
Abstract: Background and aims: The main objective of the PREDyCES study was twofold. First, to analyse the prevalence of hospital malnutrition in Spain, both at admission and at discharge, and second, to estimate the hospital costs associated with disease-related malnutrition. Methods: The study was a nationwide, cross-sectional, observational, multicentre study in routine clinical practice, which assessed the prevalence of hospital malnutrition both at patient admission and discharge using NRS-2002 . A study extension analysed the incidence of complications associated with malnutrition, excess hospital stay and healthcare costs associated with hospital malnutrition. Results: Malnutrition was observed in 23.7% of patients according to NRS-2002 . Multivariate analysis revealed that age, gender, presence of malignant disease, diabetes mellitus, dysphagia and polymedication were the main factors associated with the presence of malnutrition. Malnutrition was associated with an increase in length of hospital stay, especially in patients admitted without malnutrition but who presented malnutrition at discharge (15.2 vs. 8.0 days, p < 0.001), with an associated additional cost of €5,829 per patient. Conclusion: In Spanish hospitals, almost one in four patients is malnourished. This condition is associated with increased length of hospital stay and associated costs, especially in patients developing malnutrition during hospitalization. Systematic screening for malnutrition should be generalised in order to implement nutritional interventions with well-known effectiveness. Justificación y objetivos: El estudio PREDyCES tuvo dos objetivos principales. Primero, analizar la prevalencia de desnutrición hospitalaria (DH) en Espa a tanto al ingreso como al alta, y segundo, estimar sus costes asociados. Métodos: Estudio nacional, transversal, observacional, multicéntrico, en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual que evaluó la presencia de desnutrición hospitalaria al ingreso y al alta mediante el NRS-2002 . Una extensión del estudio analizó la incidencia de complicaciones asociadas a la desnutrición, el exceso de estancia hospitalaria y los costes sanitarios asociados a la DH. Resultados: La prevalencia de desnutrición observada según el NRS-2002 fue del 23.7%. El análisis multivariante mostró que la edad, el género, la presencia de enfermedad oncológica, diabetes mellitus, disfagia y la polimedicación fueron los factores principales que se asociaron a la presencia de desnutrición. La DH se asoció a un incremento de la estancia hospitalaria, especialmente en aquellos pacie
Assessment of Lipid Quality and Composition of Commercial Infant Milk Formulas in Mexico: Emphasis on Trans Fatty Acid Isomers  [PDF]
Ayala-Moreno María del Rosario, Fernández-Callejas José María Salvador, Maldonado-Hernández Jorge
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.74029
Abstract: Objective: To assess the lipid quality focusing on trans fatty acids (TFA) content of standardized milk formulas marketed in Mexico for infants aged from 0 to 36 months. Material and Methods: A total of 27 infant formulas from eight different leading brands were analyzed. Nine of them belonged to stage 1 (age < 6 months), nine to stage 2 (age 6 to 12 months) and eight to stage 3 (age > 12 months). Acquired products were treated by duplicate for extraction of total lipid content with the modified Folch method before their expiration date. Fatty acids were esterified in an alkaline medium followed by an acid-catalyzed esterification. Analysis was performed on a gas chromatograph (5890 Series II; Hewlett-Packard, USA) with a flame ionization detector. Results: Thirty-four fatty acids (C8 to C22) were identified. Most products complied with ESPHAGAN compositional requirements. Only one product exceeded the suggested limit (>3%) for TFA. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) content was consistently meager (≈78%), with low amounts of arachidonic (<0.35%) and docosahexaenoic acids (<0.2%).Conclusion: Most milk formulas complied with ESPHAGAN global recommendations. The content of TFA and LC-PUFAs was scarce in the majority of samples.
Incidencia de plagas en injertos de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum) sobre parientes silvestres
áLVAREZ-HERNáNDEZ,JUAN CARLOS; CORTEZ-MADRIGAL,HIPóLITO; GARCíA-RUIZ,IGNACIO; CEJA-TORRES,LUIS FERNANDO; PéREZ-DOMíNGUEZ,JUAN FRANCISCO;
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2009,
Abstract: to understand the incidence of pests in tomato grafts on relative wilds, weekly samplings were implemented from november 17, 2007 to february 16, 2008 in ciudad morelos, municipality of paracuaro, michoacán, méxico. thirteen treatments were established: six wild ecotypes of solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (“tinguaraque”), six grafts of the tomato cv toro? onto tinguaraques, and one control (cv toro?). the main species of insects reported were bemisia tabaci, bactericera cockerelliand aphis gossypii. small fruit tinguaraques (1.05-1.22 x 1.10-1.25 cm polar and equatorial diameter) had a lower incidence of insects than big fruit tinguaraques (2.12-2.23 x 2.41-2.55 cm polar and equatorial diameter) and the tomato cv toro. pest resistance was also manifested in the grafts, where the incidence of insects was from 1.7 to three times lower than in tomato; grafts on grande apatzingan (gap) were resistant to b. tabaci (5.87 ± 4.61), adult b. cockerelli (1.37 ± 1.18) and a. gossypii (1.5 ± 1.2). in tomato, the incidence of those insects was 9.74 ± 8.52, 2.26 ± 1.99 and 4.8 ± 5.2, respectively. the results suggest that the technique of grafting onto wild relatives has potential in programs of integrated management of tomato pests.
Neighborhood socio-environmental vulnerability and infant mortality in Hermosillo, Sonora
Lara-Valencia,Francisco; álvarez-Hernández,Gerardo; Harlow,Siobán D; Denman,Catalina; García-Pérez,Hilda;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000400006
Abstract: objective: this paper explores the impact of contextual variables at the neighborhood level on a health marker in the city of hermosillo, mexico and discusses the importance of collaboration between planners and health professional to minimize the negative effect of contextual factors on urban health. materials and methods: few studies in mexico have assessed health outcomes at the intra-urban scale and their interaction with neighborhood-level contextual variables. using spatial analysis and geographical information systems, the paper explores the association between infant mortality and an index of socio-environmental vulnerability used to measure urban contextual factors. results: two high infant mortality clusters were detected within neighborhoods characterized by relatively good environmental conditions and one in a neighborhood with a poor environment. conclusions: our results show the clustering of high infant mortality areas and some association with built environment factors in hermosillo. the results support the need to reconnect public health and urban planning as a way to create healthier environments in mexican cities.
Incidencia de plagas en injertos de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum) sobre parientes silvestres Incidence of pests in grafts of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) on wild relatives
JUAN CARLOS áLVAREZ-HERNáNDEZ,HIPóLITO CORTEZ-MADRIGAL,IGNACIO GARCíA-RUIZ,LUIS FERNANDO CEJA-TORRES
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2009,
Abstract: Para conocer la incidencia de plagas en injertos de jitomate sobre parientes silvestres, muestreos semanales del 17 de Noviembre de 2007 al 16 de Febrero de 2008 fueron implementados en Ciudad Morelos, Municipio de Paracuaro, Michoacán, México. Se conformaron 13 tratamientos: seis ecotipos silvestres de Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (“tinguaraque”), seis injertos de jitomate cv Toro en tinguaraque y un testigo (cv Toro ). Las principales especies de insectos registradas fueron Bemisia tabaci, Bactericera cockerelliy Aphis gossypii. Los tinguaraques de fruto peque o (1,05-1,22 x 1,10-1,25 cm de diámetro polar y ecuatorial) mostraron menor incidencia de insectos que los tinguaraques de fruto grande (2,12-2,23 cm de diámetro polar x 2,41-2,55 cm de diámetro ecuatorial) y el jitomate cv Toro. La resistencia a plagas también se manifestó en los injertos, en donde la incidencia de insectos fue desde 1,7 hasta tres veces menor que en jitomate; así, el injerto Grande Apatzingán (GAp) fue resistente a B. tabaci (5.87 ± 4.61), adultos de B. cockerelli (1,37 ± 1,18) y A. gossypii (1,5 ± 1,2). En jitomate, la incidencia de esos insectos fue de 9,74 ± 8,52, 2,26 ± 1,99 y 4,8 ± 5,2, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que la técnica de injerto sobre parientes silvestres tiene potencial en programas de manejo integrado de plagas del jitomate. To understand the incidence of pests in tomato grafts on relative wilds, weekly samplings were implemented from November 17, 2007 to February 16, 2008 in Ciudad Morelos, municipality of Paracuaro, Michoacán, México. Thirteen treatments were established: six wild ecotypes of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (“tinguaraque”), six grafts of the tomato cv Toro onto tinguaraques, and one control (cv Toro ). The main species of insects reported were Bemisia tabaci, Bactericera cockerelliand Aphis gossypii. Small fruit tinguaraques (1.05-1.22 x 1.10-1.25 cm polar and equatorial diameter) had a lower incidence of insects than big fruit tinguaraques (2.12-2.23 x 2.41-2.55 cm polar and equatorial diameter) and the tomato cv Toro. Pest resistance was also manifested in the grafts, where the incidence of insects was from 1.7 to three times lower than in tomato; grafts on Grande Apatzingan (GAp) were resistant to B. tabaci (5.87 ± 4.61), adult B. cockerelli (1.37 ± 1.18) and A. gossypii (1.5 ± 1.2). In tomato, the incidence of those insects was 9.74 ± 8.52, 2.26 ± 1.99 and 4.8 ± 5.2, respectively. The results suggest that the technique of grafting onto wild relatives has potential in programs of integrated management of tom
RELACIóN ENTRE EL CONTENIDO DE NITRóGENO EN PECIOLOS Y PRODUCCIóN DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA
álvarez-Hernández JC, Munro-Olmos D
Revista Bio Ciencias , 2011,
Abstract: Con el objetivo de generar una curva de abastecimiento nutrimental para nitrógeno (N) en el cultivo de papaya cv. `Maradol Roja , que sirva como referencia en la interpretación de los resultados de análisis foliares y diagnosticar el estado nutrimental de plantaciones comerciales, se llevó a efecto un experimento en un suelo vertisol pélico (arcilloso) en Apatzingán Michoacán, México. Se aplicaron cuatro dosis contrastantes de N, junto con un testigo sin N, con una dosis constante de fósforo (P) y potasio (K), bajo un dise o experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. A los 147 días después del trasplante (ddt) se registró la altura de planta, número de hojas y frutos; y al inicio de la fructificación (225 ddt), se seleccionaron dos plantas en cada unidad experimental, se colectaron dos peciolos de hojas recientemente maduras, para determinar mediante análisis foliar el contenido de N (% del total de materia seca), conjuntamente se les registró el rendimiento. A las variables fenológicas se les practicó análisis de varianza, y una regresión múltiple a los resultados de análisis foliares y el rendimiento de fruta. Se obtuvo, una curva de abastecimiento nutrimental de N para las condiciones ambientales de Apatzingán Michoacán, donde se relaciona el contenido de N en peciolos y el rendimiento. de fruta. En el nivel de 2 a 2.13 % de N en pe- ciolos, el rendimiento de fruta alcanzó 72.7 kg planta-1. Con esta curva nutrimental de N, es factible mejorar los criterios y eficiencia de la fertilización nitrogenada de este cultivo.
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