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Perceived Health, Physical Activity and Sport among the Elderly of Spain  [PDF]
Rafael Serrano-del-Rosal, Lourdes Biedma-Velázquez, David Moscoso-Sánchez, María Martín-Rodríguez
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32020
Abstract:

Purpose: It determines if participating in sports and/or physical activity influences perceived health among the elderly. Basic procedures: Data were drawn from a population subsample of subjects aged 65 - 79 years old that took part in a survey conducted in 2008 by the IESA-CSIC. A regression model was performed with perceived health status with the dependent variable and sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity as independent variables. Results: Physical activity is closely associated to perceived health, although sport has little influence on this relationship. Conclusions: Doing exercise or feeling that one is physically active makes the elderly feel better about their health status. However, this age group practises few sports and sport is not found to have an important or constant influence on self-perceived health status among the elderly.

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in different stages of organ transplant
María ángeles Pérez-San-Gregorio,Agustín Martín-Rodríguez,Antonio Galán-Rodríguez
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , 2007,
Abstract: Desde este estudio ex post facto, analizamos si los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión de los pacientes varían después del trasplante en relación a las tres fases del proceso: a) Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI paciente admitido recientemente en la UCI tras el trasplante), b) post-UCI (cuando el paciente abandona la UCI pero permanece en el hospital) y c) post-hospital (cuando ha pasado un a o tras el trasplante). Treinta y nueve trasplantados fueron evaluados en tres momentos diferentes: UCI, post-UCI y post-hospital. En cada fase se aplicó la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión; además, durante la primera fase se obtuvo información adicional (sociodemográfica, médica, etc.) a través de una encuesta psicosocial. Los pacientes presentaban los mayores síntomas de ansiedad y depresión en la UCI y en la fase posthospital, siendo menores en la fase post-UCI. Por lo tanto, después del trasplante de órgano, se aprecia una evolución psicológica en forma de U , con un aumento del bienestar psicológico en las fases intermedias.
Living and deceased transplanted patients one year later: Psychosocial differences just after surgery
María ángeles Pérez-San-Gregorio,Agustín Martín-Rodríguez,Antonio Galán-Rodríguez,Mercedes Borda-Más
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , 2009,
Abstract: El objetivo de esta investigación ex post facto es determinar si en una serie de variables psicosociales (ansiedad, depresión, patrón de conducta tipo A y apoyo social), que pueden evaluarse justo después de un trasplante, existen diferencias entre los trasplantados que fallecen y los que permanecen vivos cuando ha transcurrido un a o desde el implante. A partir de un grupo de 166 trasplantados, seleccionamos dos subgrupos (22 trasplantados vivos y 22 trasplantados fallecidos) que eran homogéneos en las principales variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial, la Escala de Ansiedad y Depresión en Hospital, el Listado de Características Tipo A, y la Escala para la Evaluación del Apoyo Social. Los resultados mostraron que los pacientes que más tarde fallecerían, justo después del trasplante sufrían mayores niveles de depresión y, sobre todo, de ansiedad. Por el contrario, ambos subgrupos no se distinguían en cuanto a patrón de conducta tipo A o en nivel de apoyo social. Concluimos que los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión presentes en ese momento del proceso médico, pudieran permitirnos distinguir entre los pacientes que morirán y los que sobrevivirán.
Influencia de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos en los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida
Agustín Martín-Rodríguez,María Angeles Pérez-San Gregorio
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , 2007,
Abstract: En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro a os de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas) y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro a os de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable) que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro a os, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.
Chiral gold(I) vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor
María Martín-Rodríguez,Carmen Nájera,José M. Sansano,Abel de Cózar
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.7.111
Abstract: The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I) and gold(I) catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I) catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial.
LAS PERSONAS MAYORES Y LOS PROFESIONALES DE LA ACTIVIDAD FíSICA Y DEL DEPORTE EN ESPA A
Antonio Campos Izquierdo,José Emilio Jiménez-Beatty,María Dolores González-Rivera,María Martín-Rodríguez
Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud , 2010,
Abstract: En esta investigación se analiza la existencia de monitores en la actividad física y el deporte de las personas mayores de 64 a os en Espa a. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar su existencia, en función de las características sociodemográficas de las personas mayores, el tama o geográfico de los municipios, las actividades practicadas y las organizaciones en las que se realiza la práctica. La metodología utilizada ha consistido en una encuesta seccional aplicada a una muestra de personas mayores en Espa a. Las conclusiones más relevantes que se obtienen son que la presencia de monitores en la actividad física y el deporte de las personas mayores es superior (63,8%), de ahí su importancia, así como que la existencia de monitores es muy superior en mujeres (81,3%) que en hombres (37,5%). Asimismo, se obtiene que según aumenta el tama o del municipio existe una tendencia a una mayor presencia de monitores. Además, respecto al tipo de actividad se obtiene mucha diversificación y en las entidades deportivas (87,5%) y en las residencias de mayores (79,5%) se produce una presencia más grande de monitores.
OLDER ADULTS AND SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROFESSIONALS IN SPAIN
Antonio Campos-Izquierdo,José Emilio Jiménez-Beatty,María Dolores González-Rivera,María Martín-Rodríguez
Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud , 2010,
Abstract: Presence of monitors in physical activities and sports practiced by adults older than 64 years of age in Spain is analyzed in this research. The objective of this study is to determine the existence of monitors in relation to the sociodemographic features of older adults, the size of municipalities, the activities practiced, and the organizations where they are performed. The methodology used included a cross-sectional survey applied to a sample of older adults in Spain. The most relevant conclusions are that the presence of monitors in physical activities and sports practiced by older adults is dominant (63.8%), hence, their importance, and that the presence of monitors is higher for women (81.3%) than for men (37.5%). In addition, it is concluded that the bigger the municipality the higher the tendency to have more instructors. Regarding the type of activity, wide diversification is obtained; finally, there is a larger presence of monitors in sports entities (87.5%) and nursing homes (79.5%).
Lesión de médula espinal y medicina regenerativa
Estrada-Mondaca,Sandino; Carreón-Rodríguez,Alfonso; Parra-Cid,María del Carmen; León,Clemente Ibarra-Ponce de; Velasquillo-Martínez,Cristina; Vacanti,Charles A.; Belkind-Gerson,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000600011
Abstract: spinal cord injury (sci) is a trauma problem striking mainly working age adults, therefore affecting society beyond the victim?s family circle. most of the victims of sci will never recover; therapy for this type of injury consists basically on spinal cord support and stabilization. with the discovery of stem cells (sc), sci treatment has been given another chance. stem cells are responsible for tissue renewal throughout the individual?s life, as well as tissue repair when needed. from the therapeutic point of view, the most appealing sc are those capable of generating a variety of tissues, those easily harvested, and finally, those ethically unquestioned. this article summarizes some studies carried with sc of various origins and their application to sci treatment.
Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among patients treated in primary care centres in the valencian community of Spain
Ana M Cebrián-Cuenca, Javier Díez-Domingo, María San-Martín-Rodríguez, Joan Puig-Barberá, Jorge Navarro-Pérez, the Herpes Zoster Research Group of the Valencian Community
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-302
Abstract: We prospectively analyzed the burden of HZ and PHN and their attributable costs in patients from 25 general practices in the Autonomous Community of Valencia serving 36,030 persons aged > 14 years. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of HZ who attended these centers between December 1st 2006 and November 30th 2007 were asked to participate. Patients included were followed for 1 year.Of the 130 cases of HZ followed up, continued pain was experienced by 47.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 35.6-56.7%) at 1 month after rash onset, by 14.5% (95% CI = 7.8-1.2%) at 3 months, by 9.0% (95% CI = 3.7-14.3%) at 6 months, and by 5.9% (95% CI = 1.5-10.3%) at 12 months. The percentage of patients with PHN increased with age, from 21.4% (95% CI = 8.3-40) in patients < 50 years to 59.2% (95% CI = 44.4-74) in patients ≥ 70 years. The estimated total cost for the 130 HZ cases during the follow-up period was €49,160 ($67,349). Mean cost per patient was €378 (range 53-2,830) ($517, range 73-3,877).This study shows that PHN is a relatively common complication of HZ and that both conditions combined give rise to a significant clinical and economic burden for patients and providers.Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by the reactivation of a latent infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) after primary chickenpox. HZ is characterized by a localized eruption of vesicular lesions following the trajectory of a sensory nerve, and by the presence of pain and inflammation of the affected nerve root [1].The most frequent and debilitating complication of HZ is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), defined as neuropathic pain that appears in the dermatomes affected by the VZV infection. Pain associated with PHN can be very severe and disabling and has a significant impact on a patient's quality of life [2].Studies carried out in a number of countries have shown that the incidence and severity of both HZ and PHN increase significantly with age. The annual incidence of HZ reported in population-based studie
Study of antiretroviral mutants in HIV patients with treatment failures and the effect of risk factors in the virological failures
Taylor-Castillo, Lizeth;Herrera-Martínez, Gisela;León-Bratti, María Paz;Boza, Ricardo;León-Rodríguez, Bernal;Luftig, Ronald B.;Visoná, Kirsten;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652005000600004
Abstract: introduction: information about hiv phenotypes of resistant to available art and the influence of different risk factors on virological failures (vf) in costa rican hiv positive patients prior or during haart is unknown. materials and methods: eighty nine samples, 72 vf and 17 basal (before treatment) were analyzed by examining resistant mutants in reverse transcriptase (rt) and protease (pt) regions using trugene or lipa genotyping kits. sixty eight control patients were selected and relevant information was collected in a questionnaire. results: poor adherence, presence of resistant mutations and number of treatment's changes were the only significant factors found (p = 0.006, 0.04 and 0.01 respectively). from 66 sequenced samples, 78%, 50% and 50% showed resistance to nrti (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), nnrt (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) and pi (protease inhibitors), respectively. the most frequent mutations were m41l, m184v, and t215fy in rt and l62pi, l10firv and m36i in pt. discussion: the most important factor related to treatment response in this study was adherence to treatment. mutations in rt were related to the treatment failure while the ones found in pt were secondary mutations which have been previously described to influence the selection of primary resistance mutations in these regions. the study reveals the urgency to detect resistant mutations in vf to be considered by physicians for selection of treatment schedule, to analyze basal hiv patients for monitoring of the spread of resistant mutations and the importance to reinforce the adherence in the patients for overall treatment outcome.
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