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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 516458 matches for " María José; Arregi "
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Impacto del cuidado informal en la salud y la calidad de vida de las personas cuidadoras: análisis de las desigualdades de género
Larra?aga,Isabel; Martín,Unai; Bacigalupe,Amaia; Begiristáin,José María; Valderrama,María José; Arregi,Bego?a;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112008000500008
Abstract: objectives: to describe informal caregivers' characteristics, quantify the effect of caregiving activities on caregivers' health, and determine whether this effect differs by sex. methods: a descriptive study was carried out based on the basque health survey 2002. physical and mental health, use of health services, social health and health related quality of life (hrql) indicators were compared in caregivers (n = 836) and non-caregivers (n = 5,706). age-adjusted logistic regression models were calculated to assess the association between the caregiver and effects on health by sex, socioeconomic position and occupational status. results: female caregivers showed worse results in 6 out of 10 indicators compared with non-caregiver women, whereas male caregivers showed worse results in only four indicators compared with non-caregiving men. the associations between caregiving (caregiving vs. non-caregiving) and health results were stronger in women than in men, except in social health. when caregiving burden intensity was considered, greatly burdened men showed a similar or higher risk of poor hrql (physical in men: or = 3.0, ci95%: 1.4-6.3; women: or = 2.3, ci95%: 1.5-3.5; mental in men: or = 2.5, ci95%: 1.4-4.3; women: or = 2.5, ci95%: 1.7-3.7) and low social support (affective support in men: or = 2.6, ci95%: 1.5-4.6; women: or = 1.5, ci95%: 1.0-2.3). however, the risk of sedentariness, lack of sleep, greater use of health services and mental ill-health remained higher for women caregivers. conclusions: caregiving damages the health of informal caregivers but the risks for female caregivers are higher due to greater intensity of caregiver burden. as men's caregiving burden increases, gender inequalities decrease or invert.
Mujeres y hombres ante el cuidado informal: diferencias en los significados y las estrategias
Larra?aga P,Isabel; Valderrama P,María J; Martín R,Unai; Begiristain A,José M; Bacigalupe H,Amaia; Arregi G,Bego?a;
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública , 2009,
Abstract: the increase of life expectancy in our population has enhanced the importance of dependent elderly care. this task is carried out mainly by women who, as a matter of fact, witness the effects of social change concerning family and work. objective: deepen the understanding of the different strategies that women and men take in their role as caregivers through the interpretation and analysis of their own perceptions. methodology: with the aim of better understanding the significance of all these consequences, a qualitative study based on five focus groups with both men and women caregivers was carried out. results: the interiorization of the ?caregiver role? entails a greater physical and emotional burden among women, who show a higher vulnerability towards its effects. men respond differently to this situation, which produces unlike effects among them. these differences should be considered when designing strategies focused on gender equity and improvement of dependent elderly care.
Extreme Rainfall Indices in the Hydrographic Basins of Brazil  [PDF]
María C. Valverde, José A. Marengo
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2014.41002
Abstract: The authors analyze climate extremes indices (CEI) of rainfall over the largest basins of the Brazilian territory: Amazon (AMA), S?o Francisco (SF), Tocantins (TO) and Paraná (PAR) rivers. The CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R95p) and short duration extreme rainfall (RX5day and RX1day). Droughts (CDDd) are identified based on two indicators: The longest dry period (CDD) and the annual cycle. The results demonstrate that CDDd, RX1day and RX5day occurred with more frequency and intensity in SF basin during El Ni?o events. CDDd was of greater magnitude in the TO basin during La Ni?a events, while an increase of RX1day occurred in El Ni?o. The strong El Ni?o events (1983 and 1997) caused more intense and frequent RX1day and R30mm over the PAR basin. Amazon droughts occurred in two out of the six El Ni?o events. Moreover, the relationship between the positive (negative) sea superficial temperatures anomalies in North (South) Tropical Atlantic and drought in AMA basin was corroborated. A gradual warming of SST was observed at the start of 2003 until it achieved a maximum in 2005 associated with the southwestern Amazon drought. The second highest anomaly of SST was in 2010 linked with drought that was more spatially extensive than the 2005 drought. The spatial distribution of annual trends showed a significant increase of CDD in south-eastern AMA, Upper SF, northern PAR and throughout the TO basins. R20mm, RX1day and RX5day tend to increase significantly in southwestern (northeast) PAR (AMA) and northwestern TO basins. Comparisons between CEI derived from daily precipitation data from Climate Prediction Center (CPCp) and of the ETA_HadCM3 model showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, in the four basins. Future scenarios show that dry periods will occur with greatest magnitude in all the basins until 2071-2099 time slice, while RX1day will be more intense in the TO and SF basins.
Electron Confinement Effect of Laser Dyes within Dendritic Structures  [PDF]
Francisco Márquez, María José Sabater
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2011.11001
Abstract: Dendrimers are a novel class of nanometric-size macromolecules with a regular tree-dimensional like array of branch units.1,2 Their synthetic availability in a wide range of sizes combined with their peculiar architecture makes them versatile building blocks for a wide range of potential applications.3 Some years ago, Meijer and co-workers reported that the modification of terminal amine functionalities of a fifth generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer (DAB-dendr-(NH2)64) with bulky substituents, (typically N-t-BOC protected phenylalanine), results in the formation of the so-called “dendritic box” (DAB-dendr-(NH-t-BOC-L-Phe)64).4 Within this macromolecular structure it is possible to encapsulate a variety of guest molecules due to the existence of internal cavities in the core. The photophysical properties of the guests can be modulated by the innovative electron confinement effect. In this respect, we wish to report that the emission frequency of organic dyes can be easily modulated by encapsulation in a dendritic box. The emission bands of dye molecules incorporated into a dendrimer can effectively be red shifted with respect to their emission in solution and contrary to other confined spaces of considerable hardness, the magnitude of this shifting can be regulated under appropriate experimental conditions. This peculiar effect could have unprecedented applications in the development of supramolecular devices relating to the frequency tuning of organic laser dyes.
Into the life and death: RecA a WISE factor working to integrate survival and evolution in Escherichia coli  [PDF]
José María Gómez Gómez
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.43A059

Escherichia coli RecA has been considered traditionally a cellular protein with multiple vital functions working to ensure the maintenance of integrity of genome in each individual bacterial cell as well as promoting swarming migration in collectivity. On the contrary, recently it has been described that RecA promotes cellular apoptotic-like death (ALD), a pathway of programmed cellular death (PCD). In fact, RecA has been dubbed as the major apoptotic executor in E. coli. From these studies, RecA emerges as a prototypical Gin/Gan protein that despite of their intrinsic vital and lethal anfi-funcionality becomes in a WISE factor: a Worker to Integrate Survival and Evolution in E. coli evolving populations living in community. Here, I provide a review of recent experimental and conceptual advances trying to understand these RecA’s antagonistic roles in appearance contradictory under a unified biological vision.

The Rise of Emerging Markets and Its Impact on Global Energy Security  [PDF]
José María Martín-Moreno
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.59089

This paper first explores the implications of the rise of emerging markets on energy and, then, on energy security. Nowadays, emerging economies are key players in the international political arena, in the global economy and, in energy markets. The new economic scenario, which favors emerging markets, produces a mirror image in the business world. The new oil and natural gas titans are now public companies from those emerging countries, while private companies from the developed world play second fiddle. This fact also affects energy security. This paper points out that oil is still the most vulnerable source of energy. Yet in this new context, the International Energy Agency must actively collaborate with China and India (to say the least) to create an efficient policy for energy security. Finally, this paper suggests that Russia is the world cornerstone of energy supply. And the OPEC continues to play the most relevant role in the oil markets as it has for the past 40 years.

Fortalecimiento de la función rectora de las autoridades sanitarias en las reformas del sector de la salud
Marín,José María;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892000000700006
Abstract: strengthening the ability of health authorities to provide leadership and guidance, now and in the future, is an important issue within the context of health sector reform. it means, among other things, redefining the role of health in light of leading social and economic trends seen in the world at the beginning of the 21st century, increasing participation in health by nongovernmental entities, moving toward participatory democracy in many countries, and modifying concepts of what is considered "public" and "private." within this scenario, it is necessary to redirect the role of the health sector toward coordinating the mobilization of national resources, on a multisectoral scale, in order to improve equity and social well-being and to channel the limited available resources to the most disadvantaged groups in society. the liberalization of the production and distribution of health-related goods and services, including insurance, challenges the exercise of authority in the area of health. furthermore, the formation of regional economic blocks and the enormous weight wielded by multinational companies in the areas of pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies and technologies are forcing the health sector to seek ways of harmonizing health legislation and international negotiations. according to many experts, all of these demands surpass the ability of latin american ministries of health to effectively respond, given most countries' current organizational, legal, and political conditions and technical infrastructure. the countries of the americas must make it a priority to strengthen their health officials' ability to provide leadership and guidance in order to meet present and future challenges.
Fortalecimiento de la función rectora de las autoridades sanitarias en las reformas del sector de la salud
Marín José María
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2000,
Abstract: El fortalecimiento de la capacidad rectora de las autoridades sanitarias, ahora y en futuras décadas, es asunto de relieve en el contexto de la reforma sectorial. Implica, entre otras cosas, replantear el lugar que ocupa la salud en el contexto de las principales tendencias sociales y económicas observables en el mundo en los albores del nuevo siglo, constituidas fundamentalmente por la redefinición del modelo de desarrollo, la creciente participación en el quehacer sanitario de entidades ajenas al Estado, la transición hacia una democracia participativa en diversos países, la modificación del concepto de lo "público" y lo "privado" y la globalización de la economía. En este nuevo panorama, se impone la necesidad de que el sector sanitario asuma una función distinta: coordinar la movilización de los recursos nacionales, a escala multisectorial, con miras a mejorar la equidad y el bienestar social y focalizar los escasos recursos que existen en los grupos sociales más desprotegidos. La liberalización de la producción y de la distribución de los bienes y servicios de salud, así como la dinámica de mercado que se observa cada vez más en el ámbito de estos servicios y la creciente autonomía de los sistemas de aseguramiento, constituyen nuevos retos para el ejercicio de la autoridad en materia de salud. Adicionalmente, la formación de bloques económicos regionales y el enorme peso ejercido por las grandes compa ías multinacionales, con su control del mercado de medicamentos, instrumentos y tecnologías médicas, obligan al sector de la salud a buscar maneras de armonizar la legislación en el ámbito sanitario con las negociaciones de carácter internacional. Y todas estas exigencias superan, al parecer de no pocos expertos, la capacidad de los ministerios de salud de los países latinoamericanos para responder con la debida eficacia, en vista de las limitaciones impuestas en la actualidad por la organización, poder político, marco jurídico e infraestructura técnica del sector de la salud en los países. Como resultado, estos últimos se ven llamados a dar prioridad al fortalecimiento de la capacidad rectora de sus autoridades sanitarias para hacer frente a los retos del presente y el futuro.
Relations among Sums of Reciprocal Powers—Part II
José María Amigó
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/421478
Abstract: Some formulas relating the classical sums of reciprocal powers are derived in a compact way by using generating functions. These relations can be conveniently written by means of certain numbers which satisfy simple summation formulas. The properties of the generating functions can be further used to easily calculate several series involving the classical sums of reciprocal powers.
Fotografías de indígenas en manuales escolares argentinos: representaciones visuales y connotaciones textuales
Saletta,María José;
Intersecciones en antropolog?-a , 2012,
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to analyze photographs of native people in argentinean primary and secondary school textbooks published by two companies, santillana and aique. results from quantitative and qualitative analyses of 93 images taken from 38 school text books published between 2000 and 2005 are presented. type of image used, presence of autochthonous material culture, use of epigraphs, and the ethnic adscription of the subjects portrayed are analyzed. it is concluded that there is differential representation in favor of those images showing native people with their material culture, although the use of language that contains derogative terms such as "aborigen" (i.e., native people) at the same time clearly indicates an homogenizing bias. images are used mostly denotatively, while textual connotation is privileged over visual connotation. information on the epigraphs and texts accompanying an image do not fulfill the requirements of thoroughness and accuracy, thus reducing the images to illustrations rather than useful documents.
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