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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 37565 matches for " Mar Kyaw Win "
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Combined Effect of Organic Manures and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Hybrid Rice (Palethwe-1)  [PDF]
Kyi Moe, Kumudra Win Mg, Kyaw Kyaw Win, Takeo Yamakawa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.85068
Abstract: We investigated the effect of combining organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of hybrid rice (Palethwe-1) in the dry and wet seasons of 2015. Four quantities of inorganic fertilizer were used in the main plot [0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK)] based on the recommended amounts of 150 kg N ha-1, 70 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 120 kg K2O ha-1, while different organic manures were applied to subplots [no organic manure (O0), cow manure (Oc), poultry manure (Op), and vermicompost (Ov); all at 5 t·ha-1] as part of a split-plot experimental design with three replicates. In both seasons, significant differences in growth parameters including number of tillers hill-1, soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) values, total dry matter, yield, and yield components were observed in plants supplied with different inorganic fertilizers. The 100% NPK (I100) fertilizer produced the maximum yield but similar yields were achieved in plots supplied with 50% NPK (I50) and 75% NPK (I75). Significant differences in growth and yield parameters were also found in crops supplied with organic manures. Although identical quantities were supplied, Op produced the best growth parameters in both seasons including total dry matter, yield, and yield components. Oc also performed well. Combining inorganic and organic fertilizers demonstrated that I50 together with Op (5 t·ha-1) provided similar growth, total dry matter, and yield parameters to I100 in both seasons. Oc (5 t·ha-1) plus I75 also achieved similar yields to I100. This study demonstrates that the combined application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures has the potential to reduce chemical fertilizer usage without decreasing the yield of hybrid rice, and can enhance the growth, yield, and yield components of Palethwe-1.
Effects of Combined Application of Inorganic Fertilizer and Organic Manures on Nitrogen Use and Recovery Efficiencies of Hybrid Rice (Palethwe-1)  [PDF]
Kyi Moe, Kumudra Win Mg, Kyaw Kyaw Win, Takeo Yamakawa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.85069
Abstract: We conducted two field experiments to investigate combined effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nitrogen use and recovery efficiencies of hybrid rice (Palethwe-1) during dry and wet seasons, 2015. Four levels of inorganic fertilizer (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% NPK), based on recommended rates of 150 kg N ha-1, 70 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 120 kg K2O ha-1, were used with cow manure, poultry manure, and vermicompost (5 t·ha-1each) in a split-plot design with three replicates. In both seasons, with 50% NPK, the N uptake level achieved with poultry manure was similar to that obtained with 75% and 100% NPK. The greatest N use, internal, agronomic N use, and recovery efficiencies were obtained with 50% NPK + poultry manure, but were similar to those obtained from cow manure and vermicompost subplots. As the amount of applied N from organic and inorganic fertilizer increased, the N use efficiency and related parameters decreased, due to similar yields among plots with different NPK application levels. Poultry manure resulted in the highest significant correlations between applied N and N accumulation, followed by cow manure and vermicompost, in both seasons. Neither chemical fertilizer nor organic manure alone led to optimum N use and N recovery efficiencies. The combination of 50% inorganic fertilizer (75 kg N ha-1) and poultry manure (5 t·ha-1) enhanced the N uptake, the N use and recovery efficiencies of hybrid rice. Cow manure (5 t·ha-1) in combination with 75% inorganic fertilizer (112.5 kg N ha-1) was an adequate substitute for reduced chemical fertilizer usage. Therefore, this study highlighted combined application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures had the benefits not only in reducing the need for chemical fertilizers but also in improving N uptake by hybrid rice (Palethwe-1) leading to the better environment.
Surveillance for Clostridium difficile Infection: ICD-9 Coding Has Poor Sensitivity Compared to Laboratory Diagnosis in Hospital Patients, Singapore
Monica Chan,Poh Lian Lim,Angela Chow,Mar Kyaw Win,Timothy M. Barkham
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015603
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an increasingly recognized nosocomial infection in Singapore. Surveillance methods include laboratory reporting of Clostridium difficile toxin assays (CDTA) or use of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) discharge code 008.45. Previous US studies showed good correlation between CDTA and ICD-9 codes. However, the use of ICD-9 codes for CDI surveillance has not been validated in other healthcare settings.
Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar
Thant Kyaw-Zin,Oo Win-Mar,Myint Thein-Thein,Shwe Than-Nu
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS.
Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar
Thant,Kyaw-Zin; Oo,Win-Mar; Myint,Thein-Thein; Shwe,Than-Nu; Han,Aye-Maung; Aye,Khin-Mar; Aye,Kay-Thi; Moe,Kyaw; Thein,Soe; Robertson,Susan E;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000100009
Abstract: objective: rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in myanmar. although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (crs). therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of crs. methods: from 1 december 2000 to 31 december 2002 active surveillance for crs was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in yangon, the capital city. children with suspected crs had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. all serum samples were tested for rubella-specific igm; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific igg and for rubella rna by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). findings: a total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having crs. of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed crs (7 were igm positive; 7 were rt-pcr positive; and 10 were igg positive at > 6 months of age). one additional child who tested positive by rt-pcr and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. during 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in yangon division. in the 31 urban townships of yangon division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of crs per 1000 live births. conclusion: this is the first population-based study of crs incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of crs is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. rubella-specific igg tests proved practical for diagnosing crs in children aged > 6 months. this is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific rt-pcr directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing crs.
The glass transition of glycerol in the volume-temperature plane
Kyaw Zin Win,Narayanan Menon
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We assess the relative importance of spatial congestion and lowered temperature in the slowing dynamics of supercooled glycerol near the glass transition. We independently vary both volume, V, and temperature, T, by applying high pressure and monitor the dynamics by measuring the dielectric susceptibility. Our results demonstrate that both variables are control variables of comparable importance. However, a generalization of the concept of fragility of a glass-former shows that the dynamics are quantitatively more sensitive to fractional changes in V than T. We identify a connection between the fragility and a recently proposed density-temperature scaling which indicates that this conclusion holds for other liquids and polymers.
Accuracy and User-Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing Using an Oral Fluid-Based HIV Rapid Test
Oon Tek Ng, Angela L. Chow, Vernon J. Lee, Mark I. C. Chen, Mar Kyaw Win, Hiok Hee Tan, Arlene Chua, Yee Sin Leo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045168
Abstract: Background The United States FDA approved an over-the-counter HIV self-test, to facilitate increased HIV testing and earlier linkage to care. We assessed the accuracy of self-testing by untrained participants compared to healthcare worker (HCW) testing, participants’ ability to interpret sample results and user-acceptability of self-tests in Singapore. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study, involving 200 known HIV-positive patients and 794 unknown HIV status at-risk participants was conducted. Participants (all without prior self-test experience) performed self-testing guided solely by visual instructions, followed by HCW testing, both using the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody Test, with both results interpreted by the HCW. To assess ability to interpret results, participants were provided 3 sample results (positive, negative, and invalid) to interpret. Of 192 participants who tested positive on HCW testing, self-testing was positive in 186 (96.9%), negative in 5 (2.6%), and invalid in 1 (0.5%). Of 794 participants who tested negative on HCW testing, self-testing was negative in 791 (99.6%), positive in 1 (0.1%), and invalid in 2 (0.3%). Excluding invalid tests, self-testing had sensitivity of 97.4% (95% CI 95.1% to 99.7%) and specificity of 99.9% (95% CI: 99.6% to 100%). When interpreting results, 96%, 93.1% and 95.2% correctly read the positive, negative and invalid respectively. There were no significant demographic predictors for false negative self-testing or wrongly interpreting positive or invalid sample results as negative. Eighty-seven percent would purchase the kit over-the-counter; 89% preferred to take HIV tests in private. 72.5% and 74.9% felt the need for pre- and post-test counseling respectively. Only 28% would pay at least USD15 for the test. Conclusions/Significance Self-testing was associated with high specificity, and a small but significant number of false negatives. Incorrectly identifying model results as invalid was a major reason for incorrect result interpretation. Survey responses were supportive of making self-testing available.
Resolution of Dialyzer Membrane-Associated Thrombocytopenia with Use of Cellulose Triacetate Membrane: A Case Report
Feyisayo Olafiranye,Win Kyaw,Oladipupo Olafiranye
Case Reports in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/134295
Abstract: Blood and dialyzer membrane interaction can cause significant thrombocytopenia through the activation of complement system. The extent of this interaction determines the biocompatibility of the membrane. Although the newer synthetic membranes have been shown to have better biocompatibility profile than the cellulose-based membranes, little is known about the difference in biocompatibility between synthetic membrane and modified cellulose membrane. Herein, we report a case of a patient on hemodialysis who developed dialyzer-membrane-related thrombocytopenia with use of synthetic membrane (F200NR polysulfone). The diagnosis of dialyzer membrane-associated thrombocytopenia was suspected by the trend of platelet count before and after dialysis, and the absence of other possible causes of thrombocytopenia. We observed significant improvement in platelet count when the membrane was changed to modified cellulose membrane (cellulose triacetate). In patients at high risk for thrombocytopenia, the modified cellulose membrane could be a better alternative to the standard synthetic membranes during hemodialysis.
Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA colonization in HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore
Kyaw Win,Lee Linda,Siong Wong,Ping Angela Chow
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-9-33
Abstract: Background Whilst there have been studies on the risks and outcomes of MRSA colonization and infections in HIV-positive patients, local data is limited on the risk factors for MRSA colonization among these patients. We undertook this study in a tertiary HIV care centre to document the risk factors for colonization and to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization among HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which factors associated with MRSA positivity among patients with HIV infection were evaluated. A set of standardized questionnaire and data collection forms were available to interview all recruited patients. Following the interview, trained nurses collected swabs from the anterior nares/axilla/groin (NAG), throat and peri-anal regions. Information on demographics, clinical history, laboratory results and hospitalization history were retrieved from medical records. Results MRSA was detected in swab cultures from at least 1 site in 15 patients (5.1%). Inclusion of throat and/or peri-anal swabs increased the sensitivity of NAG screening by 20%. Predictors for MRSA colonization among HIV-positive patients were age, history of pneumonia, lymphoma, presence of a percutaneous device within the past 12 months, history of household members hospitalized more than two times within the past 12 months, and a most recent CD4 count less than 200. Conclusions This study highlights that a proportion of MRSA carriers would have been undetected without multiple-site screening cultures. This study could shed insight into identifying patients at risk of MRSA colonization upon hospital visit and this may suggest that a risk factor-based approach for MRSA surveillance focusing on high risk populations could be considered.
Acute Renal Failure in Patients with Severe Falciparum Malaria: Using the WHO 2006 and RIFLE Criteria
Vipa Thanachartwet,Varunee Desakorn,Duangjai Sahassananda,Ko Ko Yazar Kyaw Win
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/841518
Abstract:
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