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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10362 matches for " Manyuan Long "
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Male non-coding RNA genes identified by comparative genomic analysis of the Drosophila genomes
ManYuan Long,ZuoYan Zhu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-007-0144-x
Abstract: This issue published a research article by Yang et al.[1] of Peking University “Significant divergence of sex-related non-coding RNA expression patterns among closely related species in Drosophila”. In a genomic analysis of D. melanogaster and its close relatives, D. simulans, D. yakuba and other related species, D. pseudoobscura and D. virillis, Yang et al. identified a dozen of gonad-(mostly testis-)expression non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes. It is revealed that these ncRNA genes show diverged expression patterns in these species. The simple method used in the study can be efficiently applied to detection of ncRNA genes in a group of closely related species from a broad range of organisms. This comment will not reiterate experiments and interpretation in detail in this paper. Instead, we will put forward our emphasis on the discussion of the significance of related results in the understanding of biology and evolution of sex reproduction. We will discuss general significance of this work in development and education of the area of ncRNA genes.
Accelerated Recruitment of New Brain Development Genes into the Human Genome
Yong E. Zhang,Patrick Landback,Maria D. Vibranovski,Manyuan Long
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001179
Abstract: How the human brain evolved has attracted tremendous interests for decades. Motivated by case studies of primate-specific genes implicated in brain function, we examined whether or not the young genes, those emerging genome-wide in the lineages specific to the primates or rodents, showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of transcription compared to old genes, which had existed before primate and rodent split. We found consistent patterns across different sources of expression data: there is a significantly larger proportion of young genes expressed in the fetal or infant brain of humans than in mouse, and more young genes in humans have expression biased toward early developing brains than old genes. Most of these young genes are expressed in the evolutionarily newest part of human brain, the neocortex. Remarkably, we also identified a number of human-specific genes which are expressed in the prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in complex cognitive behaviors. The young genes upregulated in the early developing human brain play diverse functional roles, with a significant enrichment of transcription factors. Genes originating from different mechanisms show a similar expression bias in the developing brain. Moreover, we found that the young genes upregulated in early brain development showed rapid protein evolution compared to old genes also expressed in the fetal brain. Strikingly, genes expressed in the neocortex arose soon after its morphological origin. These four lines of evidence suggest that positive selection for brain function may have contributed to the origination of young genes expressed in the developing brain. These data demonstrate a striking recruitment of new genes into the early development of the human brain.
Highly Tissue Specific Expression of Sphinx Supports Its Male Courtship Related Role in Drosophila melanogaster
Ying Chen,Hongzheng Dai,Sidi Chen,Luoying Zhang,Manyuan Long
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018853
Abstract: Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5′ flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta). Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ~800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.
The rapid generation of chimerical genes expanding protein diversity in zebrafish
Beide Fu, Ming Chen, Ming Zou, Manyuan Long, Shunping He
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-657
Abstract: Here we screened the zebrafish genome for identification of retrocopies and new chimerical retrogenes and investigated their origination and evolution. We identified 652 retrocopies, of which 440 are intact retrogenes and 212 are pseudogenes. Retrocopies have long been considered evolutionary dead ends without functional significance due to the presumption that retrocopies lack the regulatory element needed for expression. However, 437 transcribed retrocopies were identified from all of the retrocopies. This discovery combined with the substitution analysis suggested that the majority of all retrocopies are subject to negative selection, indicating that most of the retrocopies may be functional retrogenes. Moreover, we found that 95 chimerical retrogenes had recruited new sequences from neighboring genomic regions that formed de novo splice sites, thus generating new intron-containing chimeric genes. Based on our analysis of 38 pairs of orthologs between Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio, we found that the synonymous substitution rate of zebrafish genes is 4.13×10-9 substitution per silent site per year. We also found 10 chimerical retrogenes that were created in the last 10 million years, which is 7.14 times the rate of 0.14 chimerical retrogenes per million years in the primate lineage toward human and 6.25 times the rate of 0.16 chimerical genes per million years in Drosophila. This is among the most rapid rates of generation of chimerical genes, just next to the rice.There is compelling evidence that much of the extensive transcriptional activity of retrogenes does not represent transcriptional "noise" but indicates the functionality of these retrogenes. Our results indicate that retroposition created a large amount of new genes in the zebrafish genome, which has contributed significantly to the evolution of the fish genome.Retroposition entails a process in which RNA (including mRNA transcribed from a parent gene) is subsequently reverse-transcribed into cDNA and
Significant divergence of sex-related non-coding RNA expression patterns among closely related species in Drosophila
YongFei Yang,Zheng Li,QiChang Fan,ManYuan Long,WenXia Zhang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-007-0146-8
Abstract: Whether or not non-coding RNA genes play a significant role in reproductive biology and evolution of sex determination systems is an important problem. We report identification of sex-related non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes and an analysis of ncRNAs expression patterns among Drosophila species. We detected 12 candidate ncRNAs that are expressed in the gonads of D. melanogaster by an integrative approach of RT-PCR and computational analysis of sequence conservation across species. We experimentally analyzed these ncRNA gene transcripts in head, ovary and testis of closely related species D. simulans, D. yakuba, D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis. We observed that the occurrence and extent of expression of most ncRNA fragments among closely related species show significant divergence.
Accelerated Recruitment of New Brain Development Genes into the Human Genome
Yong E. Zhang,Patrick Landback,Maria D. Vibranovski,Manyuan Long
PLOS Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001179
Abstract: How the human brain evolved has attracted tremendous interests for decades. Motivated by case studies of primate-specific genes implicated in brain function, we examined whether or not the young genes, those emerging genome-wide in the lineages specific to the primates or rodents, showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of transcription compared to old genes, which had existed before primate and rodent split. We found consistent patterns across different sources of expression data: there is a significantly larger proportion of young genes expressed in the fetal or infant brain of humans than in mouse, and more young genes in humans have expression biased toward early developing brains than old genes. Most of these young genes are expressed in the evolutionarily newest part of human brain, the neocortex. Remarkably, we also identified a number of human-specific genes which are expressed in the prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in complex cognitive behaviors. The young genes upregulated in the early developing human brain play diverse functional roles, with a significant enrichment of transcription factors. Genes originating from different mechanisms show a similar expression bias in the developing brain. Moreover, we found that the young genes upregulated in early brain development showed rapid protein evolution compared to old genes also expressed in the fetal brain. Strikingly, genes expressed in the neocortex arose soon after its morphological origin. These four lines of evidence suggest that positive selection for brain function may have contributed to the origination of young genes expressed in the developing brain. These data demonstrate a striking recruitment of new genes into the early development of the human brain.
Significant Divergence of Sex-related Non-coding RNA Expression Patterns among Closely Related Species in Drosophila
Significant divergence of sex-related non-coding RNA expression patterns among closely related species in Drosophila

Yang Yongfei,Li Zheng,Fan Qichang,Long Manyuan,Zhang Wenxia,
YANG
,YongFei,LI,Zheng,FAN,QiChang,LONG,ManYuan,ZHANG,WenXia

科学通报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract:
Drosophila Duplication Hotspots Are Associated with Late-Replicating Regions of the Genome
Margarida Cardoso-Moreira ,J. J. Emerson,Andrew G. Clark,Manyuan Long
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002340
Abstract: Duplications play a significant role in both extremes of the phenotypic spectrum of newly arising mutations: they can have severe deleterious effects (e.g. duplications underlie a variety of diseases) but can also be highly advantageous. The phenotypic potential of newly arisen duplications has stimulated wide interest in both the mutational and selective processes shaping these variants in the genome. Here we take advantage of the Drosophila simulans–Drosophila melanogaster genetic system to further our understanding of both processes. Regarding mutational processes, the study of two closely related species allows investigation of the potential existence of shared duplication hotspots, and the similarities and differences between the two genomes can be used to dissect its underlying causes. Regarding selection, the difference in the effective population size between the two species can be leveraged to ask questions about the strength of selection acting on different classes of duplications. In this study, we conducted a survey of duplication polymorphisms in 14 different lines of D. simulans using tiling microarrays and combined it with an analogous survey for the D. melanogaster genome. By integrating the two datasets, we identified duplication hotspots conserved between the two species. However, unlike the duplication hotspots identified in mammalian genomes, Drosophila duplication hotspots are not associated with sequences of high sequence identity capable of mediating non-allelic homologous recombination. Instead, Drosophila duplication hotspots are associated with late-replicating regions of the genome, suggesting a link between DNA replication and duplication rates. We also found evidence supporting a higher effectiveness of selection on duplications in D. simulans than in D. melanogaster. This is also true for duplications segregating at high frequency, where we find evidence in D. simulans that a sizeable fraction of these mutations is being driven to fixation by positive selection.
Stage-Specific Expression Profiling of Drosophila Spermatogenesis Suggests that Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Drives Genomic Relocation of Testis-Expressed Genes
Maria D. Vibranovski,Hedibert F. Lopes,Timothy L. Karr,Manyuan Long
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000731
Abstract: In Drosophila, genes expressed in males tend to accumulate on autosomes and are underrepresented on the X chromosome. In particular, genes expressed in testis have been observed to frequently relocate from the X chromosome to the autosomes. The inactivation of X-linked genes during male meiosis (i.e., meiotic sex chromosome inactivation—MSCI) was first proposed to explain male sterility caused by X-autosomal translocation in Drosophila, and more recently it was suggested that MSCI might provide the conditions under which selection would favor the accumulation of testis-expressed genes on autosomes. In order to investigate the impact of MSCI on Drosophila testis-expressed genes, we performed a global gene expression analysis of the three major phases of D. melanogaster spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis, and post-meiosis. First, we found evidence supporting the existence of MSCI by comparing the expression levels of X- and autosome-linked genes, finding the former to be significantly reduced in meiosis. Second, we observed that the paucity of X-linked testis-expressed genes was restricted to those genes highly expressed in meiosis. Third, we found that autosomal genes relocated through retroposition from the X chromosome were more often highly expressed in meiosis in contrast to their X-linked parents. These results suggest MSCI as a general mechanism affecting the evolution of some testis-expressed genes.
Origination of an X-Linked Testes Chimeric Gene by Illegitimate Recombination in Drosophila
J. Roman Arguello,Ying Chen,Shuang Yang,Wen Wang ,Manyuan Long
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020077
Abstract: The formation of chimeric gene structures provides important routes by which novel proteins and functions are introduced into genomes. Signatures of these events have been identified in organisms from wide phylogenic distributions. However, the ability to characterize the early phases of these evolutionary processes has been difficult due to the ancient age of the genes or to the limitations of strictly computational approaches. While examples involving retrotransposition exist, our understanding of chimeric genes originating via illegitimate recombination is limited to speculations based on ancient genes or transfection experiments. Here we report a case of a young chimeric gene that has originated by illegitimate recombination in Drosophila. This gene was created within the last 2–3 million years, prior to the speciation of Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana. The duplication, which involved the B?llchen gene on Chromosome 3R, was partial, removing substantial 3′ coding sequence. Subsequent to the duplication onto the X chromosome, intergenic sequence was recruited into the protein-coding region creating a chimeric peptide with ~ 33 new amino acid residues. In addition, a novel intron-containing 5′ UTR and novel 3′ UTR evolved. We further found that this new X-linked gene has evolved testes-specific expression. Following speciation of the D. simulans complex, this novel gene evolved lineage-specifically with evidence for positive selection acting along the D. simulans branch.
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