Abstract:
I present a new, simple method to dynamically control the growth of the discretized constraints during a free evolution of Einstein's equations. During an evolution, any given family of formulations is adjusted off the constraints surface in a way such that, for any chosen numerical method and arbitrary but fixed resolution, the constraints growth can be minimized with respect to the freedom allowed by the formulation. In particular, provided there is enough freedom, the discretized constraints can be maintained close to its initial truncation value for all times, or decay from it. No a priori knowledge of the solution is needed, and the method can be applied to any formulation of Einstein's equations without affecting hyperbolicity. This method is independent of the numerical algorithm and accounts for constraint violating modes introduced both by continuum instabilities of the formulation and by the numerical method.

Abstract:
Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black-hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial boundary-value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

Abstract:
We present two methods to include the asymptotic domain of a background spacetime in null directions for numerical solutions of evolution equations so that both the radiation extraction problem and the outer boundary problem are solved. The first method is based on the geometric conformal approach, the second is a coordinate based approach. We apply these methods to the case of a massless scalar wave equation on a Kerr spacetime. Our methods are designed to allow existing codes to reach the radiative zone by including future null infinity in the computational domain with minor modifications. We demonstrate the flexibility of the methods by considering both Boyer-Lindquist and ingoing Kerr coordinates near the black hole. We also confirm numerically predictions concerning tail decay rates for scalar fields at null infinity in Kerr spacetime due to Hod for the first time.

Abstract:
Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial-boundary value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

Abstract:
It is shown that in 2+1 dimensional gravity an open spacetime with timelike sources and total energy momentum cannot have a stable compactly generated Cauchy horizon. This constitutes a proof of a version of Kabat's conjecture and shows, in particular, that not only a Gott pair cannot be formed from processes such as the decay of a single cosmic string as has been shown by Carroll et al., but that, in a precise sense, a time machine cannot be constructed at all.

Abstract:
By noticing that, in open 2+1 gravity, polarized surfaces cannot converge in the presence of timelike total energy momentum (except for a rotation of 2 pi), we give a simple argument which shows that, quite generally, closed timelike curves cannot exist in the presence of such energy condition.

Abstract:
We derive a geometrical version of the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations, which allows us to study gravitational perturbations on an arbitrary spherically symmetric slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole. We explain how to obtain the gauge-invariant part of the metric perturbations from the amplitudes obeying our generalized Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations and vice-versa. We also give a general expression for the radiated energy at infinity, and establish the relation between our geometrical equations and the Teukolsky formalism. The results presented in this paper are expected to be useful for the close-limit approximation to black hole collisions, for the Cauchy perturbative matching problem, and for the study of isolated horizons.

Abstract:
Outer boundary conditions for strongly and symmetric hyperbolic formulations of 3D Einstein's field equations with a live gauge condition are discussed. The boundary conditions have the property that they ensure constraint propagation and control in a sense made precise in this article the physical degrees of freedom at the boundary. We use Fourier-Laplace transformation techniques to find necessary conditions for the well posedness of the resulting initial-boundary value problem and integrate the resulting three-dimensional nonlinear equations using a finite-differencing code. We obtain a set of constraint-preserving boundary conditions which pass a robust numerical stability test. We explicitly compare these new boundary conditions to standard, maximally dissipative ones through Brill wave evolutions. Our numerical results explicitly show that in the latter case the constraint variables, describing the violation of the constraints, do not converge to zero when resolution is increased while for the new boundary conditions, the constraint variables do decrease as resolution is increased. As an application, we inject pulses of ``gravitational radiation'' through the boundaries of an initially flat spacetime domain, with enough amplitude to generate strong fields and induce large curvature scalars, showing that our boundary conditions are robust enough to handle nonlinear dynamics. We expect our boundary conditions to be useful for improving the accuracy and stability of current binary black hole and binary neutron star simulations, for a successful implementation of characteristic or perturbative matching techniques, and other applications. We also discuss limitations of our approach and possible future directions.

Abstract:
We present new many-parameter families of strongly and symmetric hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations that include quite general algebraic and live gauge conditions for the lapse. The first system that we present has 30 variables and incorporates an algebraic relationship between the lapse and the determinant of the three metric that generalizes the densitized lapse prescription. The second system has 34 variables and uses a family of live gauges that generalizes the Bona-Masso slicing conditions. These systems have free parameters even after imposing hyperbolicity and are expected to be useful in 3D numerical evolutions. We discuss under what conditions there are no superluminal characteristic speeds.

Abstract:
We compute the contribution to the Lagrangian from the leading order (2.5 post-Newtonian) radiation reaction and the quadrupolar gravitational waves emitted from a binary system using the effective field theory (EFT) approach of Goldberger and Rothstein. We use an initial value formulation of the underlying (quantum) framework to implement retarded boundary conditions and describe these real-time dissipative processes. We also demonstrate why the usual scattering formalism of quantum field theory inadequately accounts for these. The methods discussed here should be useful for deriving real-time quantities (including radiation reaction forces and gravitational wave emission) and hereditary terms in the post-Newtonian approximation (including memory, tail and other causal, history-dependent integrals) within the EFT approach. We also provide a consistent formulation of the radiation sector in the equivalent effective field theory approach of Kol and Smolkin.