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Molecular Interaction Study of some ortho and para Substituted Anilines with 1-Octanol
M. S. Manjunatha,J. Sannappa
Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/686042
Abstract:
A comparative study of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of common anti-diabetic plants at Kharagpur 1 block
Dineshkumar B,Mitra Analava,Manjunatha M
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: In India, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the increase and needs to be addressed appropriately. In this study area, herbal remedies are considered convenient for management of Type 2 diabetes with postprandial hyperglycemia due to their traditional acceptability and availability, low costs, lesser side effects. Comparative evaluation of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of selected plants extracts. Kharagpur is situated in the Midnapur West district of West Bengal in India. In this district, diabetes prevalence is comparatively high. Ten common plants in IIT Kharagpur 1 Block namely, Acalypha indica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Musa sapientum, Mangifera indica, Murraya, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus and Tinospora cordifolia were tested for their alpha amylase inhibitory activities to establish anti-diabetic potentials. The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous. The extracts obtained were subjected to in vitro alpha amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate and porcine pancreatic amylase as the enzyme. Statistical difference and linear regression analysis were performed by using Graphpad prism 5 statistical software. Ethanol extracts of Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii (at a concentrations 10-100μg/ml) showed maximum percentage inhibition on alpha amylase activity with an IC 50 value of 37.86 ± 0.32μg/ml, 62.99 ± 1.20μg/ml and 59.0 ± 0.51μg/ml respectively when compared with acarbose (IC 50 value 83.33 ± 0.75μg/ml). The results showing that Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and Murraya koenigii might be effective in lowering post prandial hyperglycemia.
Design and evaluation of diclofenac sodium controlled drug delivery systems
Manjunatha K,Ramana M,Satyanarayana D
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Sustained release dosage form of diclofenac sodium containing immediate and controlled release components was designed. Solid dispersion of immediate release component was prepared using polyvinyl pyrrolidone and mannitol carriers by common solvent method. Controlled release component was prepared in form of spherical beads by ionotropic gelation technique. The beads were prepared based on dispersing drug in solutions of ionic polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate. These dispersions were dropped into solutions of counter ions such as tetrasodium pyrophosphate and calcium chloride, respectively. The beads were also prepared using agar by dropping agar-drug hot solution into a mixture of chilled liquid paraffin and water. Then, diclofenac sodium controlled release drug delivery systems were prepared by combining the immediate release and controlled release components in different ratios. The formulations were found to be effective in providing controlled release of drug for a longer period of time. The beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies.
Studies on the anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic potentials of mangiferin (Xanthone Glucoside) in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic model rats
B Dineshkumar,Analava Mitra,M Manjunatha
International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.5138/154
Abstract: Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) stem bark contains a rich content of mangiferin and is used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. To investigate anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mangiferin in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats models. Streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats. Mangiferin (at a dose 10 and 20mg/kg) was administrated intra-peritoneally in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats daily up to 30 days. Biochemical parameters notably fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were estimated. In addition, in vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of mangiferin were performed and IC50 values were determined. Mangiferin exhibited significant (P<0.05) anti-diabetic as well as hypolipidemic effects by lowering FBS, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL levels; but also with elevation of HDL level in type 2 diabetic model rats. In addition, mangiferin showed appreciable alpha amylase inhibitory effect (IC50 value 74.35±1.9μg/ml) and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect (IC50 41.88±3.9μg/ml) when compared with standard drug acarbose (IC50 83.33±1.2μg/ml). Mangiferin showed anti-diabetic as well as hypolipidemic potentials in type 2 diabetic model rats. Therefore, mangiferin possess beneficial effects in the management of type 2 diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Mangiferin, Anti-diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Type 2 diabetes
DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE OCULAR INSERTS OF DORZOLAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE AND TIMOLOL MALEATE FOR TREATMENT OF GLAUCOMA
K.M. Manjunatha et al
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Goal of the present investigation was to formulate ocular inserts of dorzolamide hydrochloride and timolol maleate for the treatment of glaucoma. Ocular inserts of dorzolamide hydrochloride and timolol maleate were prepared using different polymers ethylcellulose, Eudragit RL 100, and Eudragit RS100 by solvent casting method with an objective to increasing the contact time, achieving controlled release, reducing in frequency of administration, and improving therapeutic efficacy. The drug-excipients interaction was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. Prepared ocular inserts were evaluated for their physicochemical properties such as uniformity of thickness, weight uniformity, tensile strength, percentage elongation, drug content, moisture loss, moisture absorption. The in vitro diffusion of drug from the inserts was studied using the classical biochemical donor - receptor compartment model fabricated in the laboratory and the formulation that showed better release profile was subjected to in vivo studies on albino-rabbits. Ocular irritation study was performed using healthy albino rabbits and confirmed that there was no irritation in the rabbit eyes. All the inserts were found to be uniform thickness and uniform weight. The inserts possessed good tensile strength and percentage elongation. All the formulations followed a first order release pattern. Optimized formulation RSRL3 showed high correlation coefficient (R = 0.996 & 0.995 respectively for dorzolamide HCl & timolol maleate) between in vitro and in vivo release. Stability study was carried out on RSRL3 formulation and showed no significant changes in the drug content as well as physical characteristics of the film.
Catalytic Synthesis of Salicylate Esters over Cordierite Honeycomb Coated with Mo (VI)/ZrO2  [PDF]
Manjunatha Shyamsundar, Sathgatta Z. M. Shamshuddin, Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak, Srinivas R. Prathap
Modern Research in Catalysis (MRC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mrc.2013.22006
Abstract:

Solid acids such as ZrO2 & Mo (VI)/ZrO2 were coated on a honeycomb monolith by impregnation method. These catalytic materials were characterized by NH3-TPD, PXRD and SEM techniques. Salicylate esters were synthesized via transesterification of methyl salicylate with different alcohols over these catalytic materials. An excellent yield of Salicylate esters was obtained under specific reaction conditions. A correlation between the surface acidity, PXRD phase and catalytic activity of Mo (VI)/ZrO2 was observed. The thermally regenerated catalytic material was reused repeatedly with a consistent high yield of salicylate esters. The honeycomb coated with zirconia catalysts were found to be economical, efficient and ecofriendly (3E concept).

Combining Heterogeneous Classifiers for Relational Databases
Geetha Manjunatha,M Narasimha Murty,Dinkar Sitaram
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Most enterprise data is distributed in multiple relational databases with expert-designed schema. Using traditional single-table machine learning techniques over such data not only incur a computational penalty for converting to a 'flat' form (mega-join), even the human-specified semantic information present in the relations is lost. In this paper, we present a practical, two-phase hierarchical meta-classification algorithm for relational databases with a semantic divide and conquer approach. We propose a recursive, prediction aggregation technique over heterogeneous classifiers applied on individual database tables. The proposed algorithm was evaluated on three diverse datasets, namely TPCH, PKDD and UCI benchmarks and showed considerable reduction in classification time without any loss of prediction accuracy.
Generation of Equal Step Multilevel Inverter Output Using Two Unequal Batteries
Y.R. Manjunatha,M.Y. Sanavullah
International Journal of Electrical and Power Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: In response to the growing demand for high power inverter unit, multilevel inverters have been attracting extensive attention from academia as well as industry in the recent decade. Among the best-known topologies are the H-bridge cascade inverter, the capacitor clamping inverter and the diode clamping inverter. In a three phase multilevel inverter, each phase of a cascaded multilevel inverter requires n DC sources to obtain 2n+1 output voltage levels. This study proposes a cascaded multilevel inverter with two unequal battery sources instead of three equal voltage battery sources for one phase to generate 7 level equal step output voltage waveform. This system can be used to drive a 3 phase Induction Motor of electric/hybrid electric vehicle, so that the cost and size of batteries can be reduced.
2-(4-Methylsulfanylphenyl)-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium bromide
Mohamed Ziaulla,M. N. Manjunatha,Ravish Sankolli,K. R. Nagasundara
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811000146
Abstract: In the cation of the title compound, C14H13N2S+·Br , the essentially planar benzimidazole system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0082 ) is substituted with a 4-methylsulfanylphenyl ring. The dihedral angle between the benzimidazole system and the 4-methylsulfanylphenyl ring is 2.133 (2)°. The crystal structure is characterized by strong and highly directional intermolecular N—H...Br hydrogen bonds involving the bromide ion. Moreover, C—H...S interactions result in chains of molecules along the c axis. The supramolecular assembly is further stabilized by π–π stacking interactions between the benzimidazole system and 4-methylsulfanylphenyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.477 (4) ].
Bis{2-[4-(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium} tetrabromidocuprate(II) dihydrate
M. N. Manjunatha,Mohamed Ziaulla,Ravish Sankolli,Noor Shahina Begum
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811012840
Abstract: The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C14H13N2S)2[CuBr4]·2H2O, contains two cations, one anion and two solvent water molecules that are connected via O—H...Br, N—H...Br and N—H...O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional polymeric structure. The cations are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion and form stacks along [100]. The central CuII atom of the anion is in a distorted tetrahedral environment.
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