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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 433 matches for " Manju Nagpal "
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Comparison of Various Generations of Superporous Hydrogels Based on Chitosan-Acrylamide and In Vitro Drug Release
Shikha Bhalla,Manju Nagpal
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/624841
Abstract: The aim of the current research work was to prepare and evaluate different generations of superporous hydrogels (SPH) of acrylamide and chitosan using gas blowing technique and evaluate them for swelling, mechanical properties, FTIR, SEM, XRD, and in vitro drug release. The ingredients used were acrylamide, N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide, chitosan, Pluronic F127, ammonium per sulfate-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylenediamine, and sodium bicarbonate. All ingredients were mixed sequentially with thorough stirring. The effect of different drying conditions on properties of SPH was also evaluated. Ethanol treated batched showed maximum swelling properties due to uniform pores as indicated in SEM studies. Equilibrium swelling time was less than 10?min in all batches. Freeze drying led to lowering of density which is also supported by porosity and void fraction data. Maximum mechanical strength was found in superporous hydrogel interpenetrating networks due to crosslinked polymeric network. 70% drug was released at the end of 2?h, and further the release was sustained till the end of 24?h. In vitro drug release kinetics showed that drug release occurs by diffusion and follows Super Case II transport indicating that mechanism of drug release is not clear. Superporous hydrogel interpenetrating networks can be successfully used as sustained release gastroretentive devices. 1. Introduction With the advent of new generation drugs, increasing attention is being given to the new methodologies for sustained and better control of drug administration (as discussed by Risbud and Bhonde [1]). Site specific delivery using novel formulation designs would improve local therapy in GI tract, optimize systemic absorption, and minimize premature drug degradation. However, the inability to confine the dosage form in desired area of GIT is one of major difficulties (as discussed by Patel and Amiji [2]). Various technical advancements in fabrication of dosage forms have been explored in this area to retain the dosage form in upper part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Small transit time of the dosage form is the main factor responsible for suboptimal absorption making traditional extended release development challenging. A variety of systems such as floating systems, bioadhesive systems, raft systems, expanding systems, swelling systems, and low-density systems have been fabricated as gastroretentive drug delivery (as discussed by Rocca et al. [3] and Bardonnet et al. [4]). Hydrogel polymers are structurally loosely cross-linked networks which have the ability to absorb considerable amounts of
Ion-exchange resin complexation: Masking the bitter taste of cefuroxime axetil
Singh,Inderbir; Kumar,Pradeep; Nagpal,Manju; Arora,Sandeep;
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2011,
Abstract: objective: the purpose of this research was to formulate taste masked complexes of cefuroxime axetil and to evaluate them for taste, drug loading and characterized by ftir, xrd. tablets were formulated of selected batches and evaluated for drug release and physical parameters. methods: complexation technique is used to prepare complexes of drug where ion exchange resins such as indion? 214, indion? 234 and indion? 414 were used with a drug-resin ratio of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. the drug resinates were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, dsc and x-ray diffraction pattern and evaluated for drug loading and taste. direct compression method was used to formulate tablets. in vitro dissolution was carried out using usp ii apparatus. result: potential taste masking increased with increasing concentration of resin. indion? 214 resin showed better taste masking effect as compared to indion? 234 and indion? 414. percent of drug loading was maximum at drug : resin ratio of 1:1, after that it decreased. prolonged (upto 5 h) and slow drug release was observed with resin 214 at higher concentration. conclusions: out of three resins chosen, indion? 214 at higher concentration exhibit excellent taste masking as well as sustained drug release action.
Complejación de la resina de intercambio de iones: enmascaramiento del sabor amargo de cefuroxime acetil Ion-exchange resin complexation: Masking the bitter taste of cefuroxime axetil
Inderbir Singh,Pradeep Kumar,Manju Nagpal,Sandeep Arora
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2011,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this research was to formulate taste masked complexes of cefuroxime axetil and to evaluate them for taste, drug loading and characterized by FTIR, XRD. Tablets were formulated of selected batches and evaluated for drug release and physical parameters. METHODS: complexation technique is used to prepare complexes of drug where ion exchange resins such as Indion 214, Indion 234 and Indion 414 were used with a drug-resin ratio of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. The drug resinates were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, DSC and X-Ray Diffraction pattern and evaluated for drug loading and taste. Direct compression method was used to formulate tablets. In vitro dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus. RESULT: potential taste masking increased with increasing concentration of resin. Indion 214 resin showed better taste masking effect as compared to Indion 234 and Indion 414. Percent of drug loading was maximum at drug : resin ratio of 1:1, after that it decreased. Prolonged (upto 5 h) and slow drug release was observed with resin 214 at higher concentration. CONCLUSIONS: out of three resins chosen, Indion 214 at higher concentration exhibit excellent taste masking as well as sustained drug release action. OBJETIVO: el objetivo de esta investigación fue formular los complejos con sabor amargo de cefuroxime acetil y evaluarlos por sabor, carga medicamentosa y caracterización por FTIR, XRD. Las tabletas fueron formuladas a partir de lotes seleccionados y evaluados en busca de la liberación medicamentosa y parámetros físicos. MéTODOS: la técnica de complejación se utilizó para preparar complejos farmacológicos donde las resinas de intercambio iónico como Indion 214, Indion 234 y el Indion 414 se emplearon a una proporción resina-medicamento de 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. Los resinados medicamentosos fueron caracterizados mediante espectroscopia infrarroja, DSC y el patrón de difracción-rayos-X, y evaluados para determinar la carga medicamentosa y el sabor. El método de compresión directa fue empleado para formular las tabletas. Se efectuó una disolución in vitro utilizando el equipo USP II. RESULTADOS: el posible enmascaramiento del sabor aumentó con la creciente concentración de resina. La resina Indion 214 mostró el mejor enmascaramiento del gusto amargo en comparación con Indion 234 e Indion 414. El porcentaje de carga medicamentosa fue máximo en el fármaco: proporción de la resina 1:1, después disminuyó. Se observó una liberación medicamentosa prolongada (hasta 5 h) y lenta con la resina 214 a una mayor concentración. CONCLUSIONES:
Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  [PDF]
Manju Sharma
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31009
Abstract: In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic), VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.
Author′s reply
Nagpal Kamal,Nagpal Manish
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2005,
Abstract:
Author′s reply
Nagpal Kamal,Nagpal Manish
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2005,
Abstract:
Performance Tradeoff with Routing Protocols for Radio Models in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Manju Bala, Lalit Awasthi
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.22008
Abstract: In this paper, we have simulated and evaluated the performance tradeoff with routing protocols: Constrained Flooding, the Real-Time Search and the Adaptive Tree on MICA and MICAz platform with different radio models using PROWLER for wireless sensor networks. The simulation results establish that the MICAz motes give low latency, high throughput, high energy consumption, low efficiency but better lifetime while the MICA motes give high success rate and less loss rate. It has been, thus, concluded that in case of all the radio models the MICAz is preferably better than MICA in applications where energy is a constraint. Moreover, use of MICAz motes increases the network lifetime in comparison to MICA for the radio models. Further, the AT protocol can be applied to achieve better energy consumption, efficiency and lifetime in real time for wireless sensor networks.
Assessment of Methane Flux from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Areas of Delhi, India  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL Ramanathan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.24045
Abstract: Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are the major Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s), which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. Therefore, there is immense concern for its abatement or utilization from landfill areas. Compared to the west, the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHG’s from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfills areas in India are not planned or en- gineered generally low lying open areas, where MSW is indiscriminate disposed. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. Due to scarcity of land in big cities, mu- nicipal authorities are using same landfill for nearly 10 - 20 years. Hence, the possibility of anaerobic emission of GHG’s further increases. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from three MSW landfill areas of Delhi i.e., Gazipur, Bhalswa and Okhla. The results showed that the range of methane emission various in winter from 12.94 to 58.41 and in Summer from 82.69 - 293 mg/m2/h in these landfill areas. The paper has also reviewed the literature on methane emission from India and the status of landfill areas in India.
Design of Sharp 2D Multiplier-Less Circularly Symmetric FIR Filter Using Harmony Search Algorithm and Frequency Transformation  [PDF]
Manju Manuel, Elizabeth Elias
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33044
Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel and efficient method for the design of a sharp, two dimensional (2D) wideband, circularly symmetric, FIR filter. First of all, a sharp one dimensional (1D) infinite precision FIR filter is designed using the Frequency Response Masking (FRM) technique. This filter is converted into a multiplier-less filter by representing it in the Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) space. The design of the FRM filter in the CSD space calls for the use of a discrete optimization technique. To this end, a new optimization approach is proposed using a modified Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA). HSA is modified in such a way that, in every exploitation and exploration phase, the candidate solutions turns out to be integers. The 1D FRM multiplier-less filter, is in turn transformed to the 2D equivalent using the recently proposed multiplier-less transformations namely, T1 and T2. These transformations are successful in generating circular contours even for wideband filters. Since multipliers are the most power consuming elements in a 2D filter, the multiplier-less realization calls for reduced power consumption as well as computation time. Significant reduction in the computational complexity and computation time are the highlights of our proposed design technique. Besides, the proposed discrete optimization using modified HSA can be used to solve optimization problems in other engineering disciplines, where the search space consists of integers.
Conservation of Forestry Biomass with the Use of Alternative Resource  [PDF]
Manju Agarwal, Rachana Pathak
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.54009
Abstract: The effect of the alternative resource and time delay on conservation of forestry biomass is studied by considering a nonlinear mathematical model. In this paper, interaction between forestry biomass, industrialization pressure, toxicant pressure and technological effort is proposed and analysed. We find out the critical value of delay and observe that there is Hopf bifurcation. Using the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem, we determine the stability and direction of the bifurcating periodic solutions. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results.
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