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Conservation of Forestry Biomass with the Use of Alternative Resource  [PDF]
Manju Agarwal, Rachana Pathak
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.54009
Abstract: The effect of the alternative resource and time delay on conservation of forestry biomass is studied by considering a nonlinear mathematical model. In this paper, interaction between forestry biomass, industrialization pressure, toxicant pressure and technological effort is proposed and analysed. We find out the critical value of delay and observe that there is Hopf bifurcation. Using the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem, we determine the stability and direction of the bifurcating periodic solutions. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results.
Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Tumor Therapy with Oncolytic Virus  [PDF]
Manju Agarwal, Archana S. Bhadauria
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.21015
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed and analyzed a nonlinear mathematical model for the study of interaction between tumor cells and oncolytic viruses. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equa- tions. Positive equilibrium points of the system are investigated and their stability analysis is carried out. Moreover, the numerical simulation of the proposed model is also performed by using fourth order Runge- Kutta method which supports the theoretical findings. It is found that both infected and uninfected tumor cells and hence tumor load can be eliminated with time, and complete recovery is possible because of virus therapy, if certain conditions are satisfied. It is further found that the system appears to exhibit periodic limit cycles and chaotic attractors for some ranges of the system parameters.
An Avian-Human Influenza Epidemic Model with Vaccination
Manju Agarwal,Vinay Verma
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2010.451.458
Abstract: A deterministic mathematical model to explore the impact of vaccination on the transmission dynamics of avian influenza both in birds and humans is studied. Vaccinations are important prevention and control measures for the spread of avian influenza. A reproductive number R for the model is defined and it is found that the DFE (Disease Free Equilibrium) is stable provided R<1 and it is unstable if R≥1 Also, if R>1 endemic equilibrium point exists and it is locally asymptotically stable. By stability analysis of ordinary differential equation, the criteria for global stability of DFE and endemic equilibrium are also obtained. By computer simulation it is found that if the growth rate at which vaccine based immunity wane increases, the infective human population decreases. Also, sensitivity analysis of the endemic equilibrium point is carried out.
Harvesting and Hopf Bifurcation in a prey-predator model with Holling Type IV Functional Response
Manju Agarwal,Rachana Pathak
International Journal of Mathematics and Soft Computing , 2012,
Abstract: This paper aims to study the effect of Harvesting on predator species with time-delay on a Holling type-IV prey-predator model. Harvesting has a strong impact on the dynamic evolution of a population. Two delays are considered in the model of this paper to describe the time that juveniles of prey and predator take to mature. Dynamics of the system is studied in terms of local and Hopf bifurcation analysis. Finally, numerical simulation is done to support the analytical findings.
Harvesting, Hopf Bifurcation and Chaos in Three Species Food Chain Model with Beddington–DeAngelis Type Functional Response
Manju Agarwal,Rachana Pathak
Journal of Global Research in Mathematical Archives , 2013,
Abstract: The dynamical relationship between predator and prey can be represented by the prey functional response which refers to the change in the density of prey attached per unit time per predator as the prey density changes. In this paper, three-species food chain model with Beddington–DeAngelis type functional response is considered and found solution both analytically and numerically. We investigate the Hopf bifurcation and Chaos of the system at mortality rate ( ) of predator with the help of computer simulations. Butler-Mc Gehee lemma is used to identify the condition which influences the persistence of the system. We also study the effect of Harvesting on prey species. Harvesting has a strong impact on the dynamic evolution of a population. To a certain extent, it can control the long-term stationary density of population efficiently. However, it can also lead to the incorporation of a positive extinction probability and therefore to potential extinction in finite time. Our result suggests that the mortality rate of predator species have the ability to control the chaotic dynamics. Keywords: Food Chain Model, Stability, Persistence,Harvesting, Chaotic Attractor, Hopf Bifurcation
Distributions of Patterns of Pair of Successes Separated by Failure Runs of Length at Least and at Most Involving Markov Dependent Trials: GERT Approach
Kanwar Sen,Pooja Mohan,Manju Lata Agarwal
Journal of Quality and Reliability Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/494976
Abstract: We use the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) to obtain probability generating functions of the waiting time distributions of 1st, and th nonoverlapping and overlapping occurrences of the pattern , involving homogenous Markov dependent trials. GERT besides providing visual picture of the system helps to analyze the system in a less inductive manner. Mean and variance of the waiting times of the occurrence of the patterns have also been obtained. Some earlier results existing in literature have been shown to be particular cases of these results. 1. Introduction Probability generating functions of waiting time distributions of runs and patterns have been studied and utilized in various areas of statistics and applied probability, with applications to statistical quality control, ecology, epidemiology, quality management in health care sector, and biological science to name a few. A considerable amount of literature treating waiting time distributions have been generated, see Fu and Koutras [1], Aki et al. [2], Koutras [3], Antzoulakos [4], Aki and Hirano [5], Han and Hirano [6], Fu and Lou [7], and so forth. The books by Godbole and Papastavridis [8], Balakrishnan and Koutras [9], Fu and Lou [10] provide excellent information on past and current developments in this area. The probability generating function is very important for studying the properties of waiting time distributions of runs and patterns. Once a potentially problem-specific statistic involving runs and patterns has been defined, the task of deriving its distribution can be very complex and nontrivial. Traditionally, combinatorial methods were used to find the exact distributions for the numbers of runs and patterns. By using the theory of recurrent events, Feller [11] obtained the probability generating function for waiting time of a success run of size in a sequence of Bernoulli trials. Fu and Chang [12] developed general method based on the finite Markov chain imbedding technique for finding the mean and probability generating functions of waiting time distributions of compound patterns in a sequence of i.i.d. or Markov dependent multistate trials. Ge and Wang [13] studied the consecutive- -out-of- : system involving Markov Dependence. Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) has been a well-established technique applied in several areas. However, application of GERT in reliability studies has not been reported much. It is only recently that Cheng [14] analyzed reliability of fuzzy consecutive- -out-of- : system using GERT. Agarwal et al. [15, 16], Agarwal & Mohan
Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  [PDF]
Manju Sharma
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31009
Abstract: In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic), VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.
Evaluation of Sentinel Node Biopsy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Who Become Clinically Node-Negative after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Preliminary Study
Shaji Thomas,Apurva Prakash,Vinay Goyal,Manju Bala Popli,Shilpi Agarwal,Monisha Choudhury
International Journal of Breast Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/870263
Abstract: Introduction. Controversy continues over the appropriate timing of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of SLN biopsy in LABC patients with cytology-proven axillary nodal metastasis who become clinically node-negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials. 30 consecutive patients with LABC, who had become clinically node-negative after 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were included in the study. They were then subjected to SLN biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast surgery. Results. Sentinel nodes were successfully identified in 26 of the 30 patients, resulting in an identification rate of 86.67%, sensitivity of 83.33%, false negative rate of 20%, negative predictive value of 72.73%, and an overall accuracy of 88.46%. No complications were observed as a result of dye injection. Conclusions. SLN biopsy is feasible and safe in LABC patients with cytology-positive nodes who become clinically node-negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our accuracy rate, identification rate, and false negative rate are comparable to those in node-negative LABC patients. SLN biopsy as a therapeutic option in LABC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a promising option which should be further investigated. 1. Introduction Prognosis in patients with breast cancer depends mainly on the extent of lymph node involvement, size of the tumor, and the histological grade of the tumor. Among these factors, axillary lymph node status is regarded as the single best marker of prognosis [1, 2]. For axillary nodal involvement, treatment in the form of level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is considered optimum. But it is also associated with a number of complications including self-limiting complaints of numbness (70%), pain (33%), weakness (25%), swelling (24%), and stiffness (15%) which can interfere with daily living in upto 39% of cases. The risk of arm edema varies from 8% to 37% being related to the level of dissection and the number of nodes removed. Axillary vein thrombosis and injury to the motor nerves of axilla are extremely uncommon [2, 3]. Following the introduction of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer, this technique has been widely adopted by cancer centers around the world for node-negative early breast cancer [2]. If the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is negative, the likelihood for other lymph nodes in the axilla to be negative ranges from 95 to 100%. So unnecessary ALND can be avoided in patients with
Performance Tradeoff with Routing Protocols for Radio Models in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Manju Bala, Lalit Awasthi
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.22008
Abstract: In this paper, we have simulated and evaluated the performance tradeoff with routing protocols: Constrained Flooding, the Real-Time Search and the Adaptive Tree on MICA and MICAz platform with different radio models using PROWLER for wireless sensor networks. The simulation results establish that the MICAz motes give low latency, high throughput, high energy consumption, low efficiency but better lifetime while the MICA motes give high success rate and less loss rate. It has been, thus, concluded that in case of all the radio models the MICAz is preferably better than MICA in applications where energy is a constraint. Moreover, use of MICAz motes increases the network lifetime in comparison to MICA for the radio models. Further, the AT protocol can be applied to achieve better energy consumption, efficiency and lifetime in real time for wireless sensor networks.
Assessment of Methane Flux from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Areas of Delhi, India  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL Ramanathan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.24045
Abstract: Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are the major Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s), which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. Therefore, there is immense concern for its abatement or utilization from landfill areas. Compared to the west, the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHG’s from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfills areas in India are not planned or en- gineered generally low lying open areas, where MSW is indiscriminate disposed. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. Due to scarcity of land in big cities, mu- nicipal authorities are using same landfill for nearly 10 - 20 years. Hence, the possibility of anaerobic emission of GHG’s further increases. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from three MSW landfill areas of Delhi i.e., Gazipur, Bhalswa and Okhla. The results showed that the range of methane emission various in winter from 12.94 to 58.41 and in Summer from 82.69 - 293 mg/m2/h in these landfill areas. The paper has also reviewed the literature on methane emission from India and the status of landfill areas in India.
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