Abstract:
We investigate the influence of a gravitational wave background on particles in circular motion. We are especially interested in waves leading to stationary orbits. This consideration is limited to circular orbits perpendicular to the incidence direction. As a main result of our calculation, we obtain in addition to the well-known alteration of the radial distance a time dependent correction term for the phase modifying the circular motion of the particle. A background of gravitational waves creates some kind of uncertainty.

Abstract:
According to the recent experimental data of a GSI--experiment, the rate of the number of daughter ions $^{140}{\rm Ce}^{58+}$, produced by a nuclear K--shell electron capture (EC) of the H--like ion ${^{140}}{\rm Pr}^{58+}$, is modulated in time with a period $T_d=(7.06\pm 8) $seconds. We explain this phenomenon by neutrino--flavour mixing and show that this can be understood within standard quantum field theory and derive a value for the squared mass difference $\Delta m^2_{21}=m^2_2-m^2_1=(0.763\pm 8) \cdot 10^{-4} \mathrm{eV}^2$. This proves that such processes provide a precise method to investigate neutrino--flavour mixing.

Abstract:
We introduce a model designed to describe charged particles as stable topological solitons of a field with values on the internal space S^3. These solitons behave like particles with relativistic properties like Lorentz contraction and velocity dependence of mass. This mass is defined by the energy of the soliton. In this sense this model is a generalisation of the sine-Gordon model from 1+1 dimensions to 3+1 dimensions, from S^1 to S^3. (We do not chase the aim to give a four-dimensional generalisation of Coleman's isomorphism between the Sine-Gordon model and the Thirring model which was shown in 2-dimensional space-time.) For large distances from the center of solitons this model tends to a dual U(1)-theory with freely propagating electromagnetic waves. Already at the classical level it describes important effects, which usually have to be explained by quantum field theory, like particle-antiparticle annihilation and the running of the coupling.

Abstract:
Earlier investigations showed local minima in the monopole-antimonopole potential in U(1) gauge theory on the lattice. In this paper we localize monopoles of Monte-Carlo configurations. A statistical analysis of localization measurements gives us the probability density which we compare with the potential found in [1]. We find the monopoles mainly located either in the center of three-dimensional cubes or on the interface between two cubes. This agrees with the position of minima and maxima of the monopole-antimonopole potential.

Abstract:
We review lattice evidence for the vortex mechanism of quark confinement and study the influence of charged matter fields on the vortex distribution.

Abstract:
We consider a model of topological solitons where charged particles have finite mass and the electric charge is quantised already at the classical level. In the electrodynamic limit, which physically corresponds to electrodynamics of solitons of zero size, the Lagrangian of this model has two degrees of freedom only and reduces to the Lagrangian of the Maxwell field in dual representation. We derive the equations of motion and discuss their relations with Maxwell's equations. It is shown that Coulomb and Lorentz forces are a consequence of topology. Further, we relate the U(1) gauge invariance of electrodynamics to the geometry of the soliton field, give a general relation for the derivation of the soliton field from the field strength tensor in electrodynamics and use this relation to express homogeneous electric fields in terms of the soliton field.

Abstract:
We propose a method for the determination of magnetic monopole currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the Gauss law and the dual London equation in a gauge invariant formulation.

Abstract:
We investigate singly and doubly charged flux tubes in U(1) lattice gauge theory. By simulating the dually transformed path integral we are able to consider large flux tube lengths, low temperatures, and multiply charged systems without loss of numerical precision. We simulate flux tubes between static sources as well as periodically closed flux tubes, calculating flux tube profiles, the total field energy and the free energy. Our main results are that the string tension in both three and four dimensions scales proportionally to the charge -- which is in contrast to previous lattice results -- and that in four-dimensional U(1) there is an attractive interaction between flux tubes for beta approaching the phase transition.

Abstract:
We analyze the model of topological fermions, where charged fermions are treated as topological solitons. We discuss vibrations of soliton shapes. It is shown that depending on the power of the potential term (discrete parameter m) of the model Lagrangian the spectrum of normal mode frequencies can be discrete (for m = 1) or continuous (for integer m > 1).

Abstract:
In any Abelian gauge theory with an action periodic in the link variables one can perform a duality transformation not only in the partition function, but also in correlation functions including Polyakov loops. The calculation of expectation values in the confinement phase, like electric field strength or monopole currents in the presence of external charges, becomes significantly more efficient simulating the dual theory. We demonstrate this using the ordinary Wilson action. This approach also allows a quantitative analysis of the dual superconductor model, because the dual transformed U(1) theory can be regarded as limit of a dual non-compact Abelian Higgs model. In this way we also try to interpret the behaviour of monopole condensate and string fluctuations. Finally we present some applications for simulating the dual U(1) gauge theory.