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The ability to control the nanoscale shape of carbon nanostructures during wide-scale synthesis process is an essential goal in research for Nanotechnology applications. This paper reports a significant progress toward that goal. Variant CVD has been used for the synthesis of the samples studied. Curvature, hybridization and contamination are analyzed using Electron Microscopies and XANES spectroscopy. The investigations of the results show that four types of samples are obtained. They are carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanowalls (CNWs) and carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). Almost all of them have catalyst nanoparticles (metal) on top in top growth model or on base in base growth model and encapsulated or adsorbed in sidewalls. The orientation of tubular carbon nanomaterials depends on operating parameters. They are classified in three groups: the poorly oriented, the medium oriented and the highly oriented. Their contamination (radicals, atoms and molecules) and hybridization are intrinsically related to the curvature of their graphene layers. XANES spectroscopy allows quantitative characterization of nanomaterials.
Land evaluation procedure
given by FAO for soil site suitability for various land utilization types for
rainfed agriculture has been used to assess the land suitability for khasi
mandarin orange and pineapple in East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya. The
database on soil and land use/land cover was generated from IRS-P6 remote
sensing satellite data, soil survey and laboratory analysis of soil samples to
perform an integrated analysis in the Geographic Information System
environment. Different soil chemical parameters and physical parameters were
considered to evaluate soil site suitability for orange & pineapple. Different
thematic layers were derived from soil map by using ArcGIS software.
Subsequently all of them were overlaid and integrated in GIS environment and suitability criteria was applied to
the resulted composite map and generated land suitability map for orange and pineapple. The result indicated that
the soil sites of the study area are highly to marginally suitable for mandarin
orange whereas it is marginally suitable for pineapple. The study reveals that
highly suitable areas for orange are found in the Cherapunjee and Mawsynram area
that covers 34.5 Sq.Km areas. Moderately suitable (37% of TGA) and
marginally suitable (24% of TGA) areas are
found only because of slope constraint (8%-30% slope).
The hills with deep gorges and ravines on the southern portion of the district
is found not suitable for orange plantation
because of steep slopes (>30%) and stoniness. Land suitability analysis for
pineapple showed that 81% area of total geographical area of the district is
marginally suitable and 19% area is not suitable to support the crop. The
district is marginally suitable because of topography (slope and erosion), soil
fertility (base saturation and CEC) and climate.